Chondrogenic potential of human adult mesenchymal stem cells is independent of age or osteoarthritis etiology.

NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at the University of Tübingen, Reutlingen, Germany.
Stem Cells (Impact Factor: 7.7). 12/2007; 25(12):3244-51. DOI: 10.1634/stemcells.2007-0300
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease strongly correlated with history of joint trauma, joint dysplasia, and advanced age. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising cells for biological cartilage regeneration. Conflicting data have been published concerning the availability of MSCs from the iliac crest, depending on age and overall physical fitness. Here, we analyzed whether the availability and chondrogenic differentiation capacity of MSCs isolated from the femoral shaft as an alternative source is age- or OA etiology-dependent. MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow (BM) of 98 patients, categorized into three OA-etiology groups (age-related, joint trauma, joint dysplasia) at the time of total hip replacement. All BM samples were characterized for cell yield, proliferation capacity, and phenotype. Chondrogenic differentiation was studied using micromass culture and analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Significant volumes of viable BM (up to 25 ml) could be harvested from the femoral shaft without observing donor-site morbidity, typically containing >10(7) mononuclear cells per milliliter. No correlation of age or OA etiology with the number of mononuclear cells in BM, MSC yield, or cell size was found. Proliferative capacity and cellular spectrum of the harvested cells were independent of age and cause of OA. From all tested donors, MSCs could be differentiated into the chondrogenic lineage. We conclude that, irrespective of age and OA etiology, sufficient numbers of MSCs can be isolated and that these cells possess an adequate chondrogenic differentiation potential. Therefore, a therapeutic application of MSCs for cartilage regeneration of OA lesions seems feasible. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

Download full-text


Available from: Alwin Scharstuhl, Oct 17, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aging is accompanied by reduced regenerative capacity of all tissues and organs and dysfunction of adult stem cells. Notably, these age-related alterations contribute to distinct pathophysiological characteristics depending on the tissue of origin and function and thus require special attention in a type by type manner. In this paper, we review the current understanding of the mechanisms leading to tissue-specific adult stem cell dysfunction and reduced regenerative capacity with age. A comprehensive investigation of the hematopoietic, the neural, the mesenchymal, and the skeletal stem cells in age-related research highlights that distinct mechanisms are associated with the different types of tissue stem cells. The link between age-related stem cell dysfunction and human pathologies is discussed along with the challenges and the future perspectives in stem cell-based therapies in age-related diseases.
    Biogerontology 10/2013; 14(6). DOI:10.1007/s10522-013-9469-9 · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being investigated further for their use in stem cell therapies. However, as they are found in very low numbers in adult tissue, expansion in vitro is required to produce desired MSC numbers for clinical application. The need for effective cell-based therapies is increasing due to a rise in the ageing population, increasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. This review investigates how factors, age and gender of donor, as well as seeding density can affect MSC expansion. Age and gender of donor have received mixed results from studies, whereas seeding density studies have produced consistent results for numerous MSC sources, favouring lower seeding densities. Further research is required to reduce the risk of infection, loss of cell characterisation in cell culture, and making cell-based therapies more cost effective through creating rapid expansion of MSCs regardless of patient factors.
    01/2012; 2012:465259. DOI:10.1155/2012/465259
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to evaluate the age-dependent mechanical phenotype of bone marrow stromal cell- (BMSC-) and chondrocyte-produced cartilage-like neo-tissue and to elucidate the matrix-associated mechanisms which generate this phenotype. Cells from both immature (2-4 month-old foals) and skeletally-mature (2-5 year-old adults) mixed-breed horses were isolated from animal-matched bone marrow and cartilage tissue, encapsulated in self-assembling-peptide hydrogels, and cultured with and without TGF-beta1 supplementation. BMSCs and chondrocytes from both donor ages were encapsulated with high viability. BMSCs from both ages produced neo-tissue with higher mechanical stiffness than that produced by either young or adult chondrocytes. Young, but not adult, chondrocytes proliferated in response to TGF-beta1 while BMSCs from both age groups proliferated with TGF-beta1. Young chondrocytes stimulated by TGF-beta1 accumulated ECM with 10-fold higher sulfated-glycosaminoglycan content than adult chondrocytes and 2-3-fold higher than BMSCs of either age. The opposite trend was observed for hydroxyproline content, with BMSCs accumulating 2-3-fold more than chondrocytes, independent of age. Size-exclusion chromatography of extracted proteoglycans showed that an aggrecan-like peak was the predominant sulfated proteoglycan for all cell types. Direct measurement of aggrecan core protein length and chondroitin sulfate chain length by single molecule atomic force microscopy imaging revealed that, independent of age, BMSCs produced longer core protein and longer chondroitin sulfate chains, and fewer short core protein molecules than chondrocytes, suggesting that the BMSC-produced aggrecan has a phenotype more characteristic of young tissue than chondrocyte-produced aggrecan. Aggrecan ultrastructure, ECM composition, and cellular proliferation combine to suggest a mechanism by which BMSCs produce a superior cartilage-like neo-tissue than either young or adult chondrocytes.
    Matrix biology: journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 02/2010; 29(5):427-38. DOI:10.1016/j.matbio.2010.02.003 · 3.65 Impact Factor