Occupational exposure to pesticides and risk of hematopoietic cancers: meta-analysis of case-control studies

UMR 1089 Xénobiotiques, INRA, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, Toulouse 31931, France.
Cancer Causes and Control (Impact Factor: 2.96). 01/2008; 18(10):1209-26. DOI: 10.1007/s10552-007-9061-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this study we conducted a meta-analysis of 13 case-control studies that examined the occurrence of hematopoietic cancers in pesticide related occupations in order to undertake a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a possible relationship.
Pubmed databases were searched for case-control studies published between 1990 and 2005 investigating the relation between hematopoietic cancers and occupational exposure to pesticides. Fixed and random effect meta-analysis models were used depending on the presence of heterogeneity between studies.
The overall meta-odds ratio obtained after pooling 44 ORs from 13 studies was 1.3 (95% CI: 1.3-1.5). We realized stratified analysis on three different types of hematopoietic cancers (non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), leukemia and multiple myeloma). A significant increased risk of NHL was found (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.2-1.5). Moreover, increased risks of Leukemia (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 0.9-2) and multiple myeloma (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.99-1.36) were also detected but these results were not statistically significant. Significant heterogeneity existed among the different studies and a publication bias was detected. Therefore, a meta-regression was carried out. Our results showed that a long period of exposure (more than 10 years) provided an increase in the risk of all hematopoietic cancers and for NHL by fractions of 2.18 (95% CI = 1.43-3.35) and 1.65 (95% CI = 1.08-2.51), respectively. Conclusions: The overall meta-odds ratio suggests that there is a significantly positive association between occupational exposure to pesticides and all hematopoietic cancers as well as NHL. A major limitation of our meta-analysis is the lack of sufficient data about exposure information and other risk factors for hematopoietic cancer (genetic predisposition, ethnic origin, immunodepression...). In addition, data concerning specific subtypes of hematopoietic cancers are often confusing. Thus, future epidemiological studies should undertake a major effort to assess the identity and the level of pesticides exposure and should control for the most likely potential confounders.

Download full-text


Available from: Helen Raynal, Dec 18, 2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose The effect of one pesticide spraying season on DNA damage was measured on B and T lymphocytes among open-field farmers and controls. Methods At least two peripheral blood samples were collected from each individual: one in a period without any pesticide application, several weeks after the last use (January, at period P0), and another in the intensive pesticide spraying period (May or June, at period P4). DNA damage was studied by alkaline comet assay on isolated B or T lymphocytes. Results Longitudinal comparison of DNA damage observed at both P0 and P4 periods revealed a statistically significant genotoxic effect of the pesticide spraying season in both B (P = 0.02) and T lymphocytes (P = 0.02) in exposed farmers. In contrast, non-farmers did not show any significant modifications. DNA damage levels in B and T lymphocytes were significantly higher in farmers than in non-farmers during the P4 period (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001 for B and T lymphocytes, respectively) but not during the P0 period. The seasonal effect observed among farmers was not correlated with either total farm area, farm area devoted to crops or recent solar exposure. On average, farmers used pesticides for 21 days between P0 and P4. Between the two time points studied, there was a tendency for a potential effect of the number of days of fungicide treatments (r 2 = 0.43; P = 0.11) on T lymphocyte DNA damage. Conclusions A genotoxic effect was found in lymphocytes of farmers exposed to pesticides, suggesting in particular the possible implication of fungicides.
    International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00420-015-1024-3 · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The French system for monitoring dietary exposure to pesticide residues and its scoring method are presented. This system aims both to assess acute and chronic risks to the general population and to identify food commodities and pesticides that need to be better monitored and/or regulated thanks to 6 priority levels. The method combines four chronic and acute dietary risk indicators based on the results of the most recent national monitoring programmes and maximum residue levels, in connection with individual and national food consumption data. The probability of exceeding the toxicological reference values was estimated for children and adults, for 522 pesticides and their metabolites. Food contributors were detailed and a minimum number of samples to be taken per food was proposed. The majority of the pesticides (87%) was scored at the lowest priority level 1. For pesticides classified in levels 2 to 5, there is a need to refine the assessment. The monitoring should also be extended to include newly authorised substances in levels 2 to 4. Carbendazim, dimethoate, dithiocarbamates and imazalil merit particular attention as they scored at level 6 and are frequently quantified in fruits and vegetables, meaning that risk managers should take corrective measures in order to ensure consumer safety.
    Food Control 07/2014; 41:32–48. DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.12.025 · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Consumers are exposed to a mixture of pesticides through their food intake. These compounds are considered risk factors for human health, and the impact of dietary exposure to low doses of pesticide mixtures remains poorly understood. For this study we developed a mouse model to mimic consumer exposure in order to compare the effect of pesticides both alone or combined at doses corresponding to their Acceptable Daily Intake value. Female mice were exposed to pesticides throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning pups were fed the same pesticide-enriched diet their mothers had received for an additional 11 weeks. A metabonomic approach using 1-H NMR-based analysis of plasma showed that exposure to each pesticide produced a specific metabolic fingerprint in adult offspring. Discriminant metabolites between groups were glucose or lactate, choline, glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine. Interestingly, metabolite differences were observed as early as weaned animals that had not yet been directly exposed themselves. Studies of the hematopoietic system revealed that dietary exposure to one particular pesticide, endosulfan, produced a significant decrease in red blood cell and hemoglobin levels, consistent with hemolytic anemia. Moreover, cell signaling profiles of bone marrow progenitors were also clearly affected. Expression of cell signaling proteins such as P35, CDC27, FAK, P38 MAP kinase, calcineurin and caspase as well as proteins involved in the stability or structure of the cytoskeleton (vinculin, MAP2) was changed upon dietary exposure to pesticides. Finally, we found that dietary exposure to a mixture of pesticides had effects that differed and were often lesser or equal to that of the most efficient pesticide (endosulfan), suggesting that the effect of pesticide mixtures cannot always be predicted from the combined effects of their constituent compounds.
    Toxicology 03/2013; 308. DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2013.03.004 · 3.75 Impact Factor