Occupational exposure to pesticides and risk of hematopoietic cancers: Meta-analysis of case-control studies

UMR 1089 Xénobiotiques, INRA, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, Toulouse 31931, France.
Cancer Causes and Control (Impact Factor: 2.74). 01/2008; 18(10):1209-26. DOI: 10.1007/s10552-007-9061-1
Source: PubMed


In this study we conducted a meta-analysis of 13 case-control studies that examined the occurrence of hematopoietic cancers in pesticide related occupations in order to undertake a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a possible relationship.
Pubmed databases were searched for case-control studies published between 1990 and 2005 investigating the relation between hematopoietic cancers and occupational exposure to pesticides. Fixed and random effect meta-analysis models were used depending on the presence of heterogeneity between studies.
The overall meta-odds ratio obtained after pooling 44 ORs from 13 studies was 1.3 (95% CI: 1.3-1.5). We realized stratified analysis on three different types of hematopoietic cancers (non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), leukemia and multiple myeloma). A significant increased risk of NHL was found (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.2-1.5). Moreover, increased risks of Leukemia (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 0.9-2) and multiple myeloma (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.99-1.36) were also detected but these results were not statistically significant. Significant heterogeneity existed among the different studies and a publication bias was detected. Therefore, a meta-regression was carried out. Our results showed that a long period of exposure (more than 10 years) provided an increase in the risk of all hematopoietic cancers and for NHL by fractions of 2.18 (95% CI = 1.43-3.35) and 1.65 (95% CI = 1.08-2.51), respectively. Conclusions: The overall meta-odds ratio suggests that there is a significantly positive association between occupational exposure to pesticides and all hematopoietic cancers as well as NHL. A major limitation of our meta-analysis is the lack of sufficient data about exposure information and other risk factors for hematopoietic cancer (genetic predisposition, ethnic origin, immunodepression...). In addition, data concerning specific subtypes of hematopoietic cancers are often confusing. Thus, future epidemiological studies should undertake a major effort to assess the identity and the level of pesticides exposure and should control for the most likely potential confounders.


Available from: Helen Raynal, Dec 18, 2013
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    • "Several epidemiological studies reported during the last two decades suggest harmful effects of pesticides on human health, including a possible relationship between pesticide use and cancers such as leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and various types of solid tumor. Many of these effects have been related to occupational exposures (Merhi et al., 2007; Weichenthal et al., 2010). Benodanil, which is a group of benzanilide fungicide, is used extensively in agriculture and a previous study indicated that it is reduced tillering and the total leaf number of the plants. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects of Benodanil fungicide by employing both mitotic index (MI) and mitotic phases on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa and genotoxic effects by using in vitro micronucleus assay (MN) in human peripheral blood lymphocyte. In the Allium root growth inhibition test, the EC50 value was first determined as 25 ppm. Then, 2 × EC50 value (50 ppm), EC50 value (25 ppm), and 1/2 × EC50 value (12.5 ppm) were tested with different treatment periods (24, 48, and 72 h). Both negative and positive controls were also used in parallel experiments. We obtained that mitotic index and prophase index decreased when compared with the control in all concentrations. In the micronucleus assay, lymphocytes were treated with various concentrations (250, 500, 750, and 1000 µg/ml) of Benodanil for 24 and 48 h. The results showed that Benodanil did not induce MN frequency in all concentrations of both treatment periods. Additionally, it was determined that this pesticide decreased nuclear division index (NDI) significantly. It was concluded that Benodanil has a cytotoxic effects depending on decreasing of MI and NDI.
    Drug and Chemical Toxicology 09/2015; DOI:10.3109/01480545.2015.1012211 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Epidemiologic studies have reported a lower incidence of overall cancer among farmers. However, a higher incidence of certain types of cancers, particularly hematopoietic cancers (Merhi et al. 2007; Van Maele-Fabry et al. 2007), soft tissue sarcoma (Kogevinas et al. 1995), lung cancer (Veglia et al. 2007) and prostate cancer (Parent et al. 2009; Van Maele-Fabry and Willems 2004), has been described (for review Alavanja and Bonner 2012). There are several etiologic clues to farming-related pathologies such as ultraviolet light, zoonotic viruses and pesticides, all being clearly or potentially genotoxic. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The effect of one pesticide spraying season on DNA damage was measured on B and T lymphocytes among open-field farmers and controls. Methods: At least two peripheral blood samples were collected from each individual: one in a period without any pesticide application, several weeks after the last use (January, at period P0), and another in the intensive pesticide spraying period (May or June, at period P4). DNA damage was studied by alkaline comet assay on isolated B or T lymphocytes. Results: Longitudinal comparison of DNA damage observed at both P0 and P4 periods revealed a statistically significant genotoxic effect of the pesticide spraying season in both B (P = 0.02) and T lymphocytes (P = 0.02) in exposed farmers. In contrast, non-farmers did not show any significant modifications. DNA damage levels in B and T lymphocytes were significantly higher in farmers than in non-farmers during the P4 period (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001 for B and T lymphocytes, respectively) but not during the P0 period. The seasonal effect observed among farmers was not correlated with either total farm area, farm area devoted to crops or recent solar exposure. On average, farmers used pesticides for 21 days between P0 and P4. Between the two time points studied, there was a tendency for a potential effect of the number of days of fungicide treatments (r (2) = 0.43; P = 0.11) on T lymphocyte DNA damage. Conclusions: A genotoxic effect was found in lymphocytes of farmers exposed to pesticides, suggesting in particular the possible implication of fungicides.
    International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 02/2015; 88(7). DOI:10.1007/s00420-015-1024-3 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    • "Although pesticides help control agricultural pests and organisms harming human activities, they may present a risk for human health. Severe pathologies such as cancers, neurodegenerative diseases or reproductive disorders are suspected of being connected to exposure to pesticides, particularly for specific populations such as farmers and their children (Bailey et al., 2011; Baldi et al., 2011; Inserm, 2013; Koutros et al., 2011; Merhi et al., 2008). In the general population, dietary intake is considered to be the main route of exposure to most pesticides (Cao et al., 2011; Lu et al., 2006; Nougadère et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The French system for monitoring dietary exposure to pesticide residues and its scoring method are presented. This system aims both to assess acute and chronic risks to the general population and to identify food commodities and pesticides that need to be better monitored and/or regulated thanks to 6 priority levels. The method combines four chronic and acute dietary risk indicators based on the results of the most recent national monitoring programmes and maximum residue levels, in connection with individual and national food consumption data. The probability of exceeding the toxicological reference values was estimated for children and adults, for 522 pesticides and their metabolites. Food contributors were detailed and a minimum number of samples to be taken per food was proposed. The majority of the pesticides (87%) was scored at the lowest priority level 1. For pesticides classified in levels 2 to 5, there is a need to refine the assessment. The monitoring should also be extended to include newly authorised substances in levels 2 to 4. Carbendazim, dimethoate, dithiocarbamates and imazalil merit particular attention as they scored at level 6 and are frequently quantified in fruits and vegetables, meaning that risk managers should take corrective measures in order to ensure consumer safety.
    Food Control 07/2014; 41(1):32–48. DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.12.025 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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