Citric acid production.

Department of Chemical, Biochemical and Ecology Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 5, 1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Biotechnology annual review 02/2007; 13:303-43. DOI: 10.1016/S1387-2656(07)13011-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Citric acid is a commodity chemical produced and consumed throughout The World. It is used mainly in the food and beverage industry, primarily as an acidulant. Although it is one of the oldest industrial fermentations, its World production is still in rapid increasing. Global production of citric acid in 2007 was over 1.6 million tones. Biochemistry of citric acid fermentation, various microbial strains, as well as various substrates, technological processes and product recovery are presented. World production and economics aspects of this strategically product of bulk biotechnology are discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: There has been an increasing trend in the production and consumption of local and imported fruit juices in Iran. The presence of impurities and foreign matter in finished products for human consumption is of great concern because they present health hazards when they exceed beneficial limits. The manufacture of juices requires special attention in terms of purity and the sources of water and its purification are crucial for maintaining quality and safety. Biosorption can be defined as the removal of metal or metalloid species, compounds and particulates from solution by biological material. citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. Levels of heavy metals: Lead, Cadmium and Nickel in 180 selected fruit juice commercially available packaged samples (Pineapple, Orange, Mango, Tropical, Cherry& Grape) purchased from Tehran local Market in 2014. Heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) by wet digestion method in Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University Tehran-Iran. From the obtained result Ni, Cd and Pb were detectable in 85% of samples especially in Mango and Tropical juices. The efficiency removal of Nickel, lead and Cadmium and neutralization of calculus contain of juice by Citric acid as a chelating were carried out by using of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry technique. The result demonstrated the complexation formulating between the citric acid and heavy metals. The high efficiency of Citric acid played an important role in removal of lead and cadmium in addition to this removal were increased by increasing the citric acid. The enhancing of citric acid in removal of lead and cadmium caused to create a slightly tart, refreshing flavor and balance sweetness.
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    ABSTRACT: This article reviews the present state of research on the conversion of low cost substrates to citric acid by fermentation. Fermentation is a powerful incentive for semi-industrialized countries. There is a great demand for citric acid due to its wide industrial applications and less toxicity. Citric acid can be produced using less expensive substrates that are renewable too. Plant biomass is one of the desirable raw materials for fermentation due to its availability in abundance. Using natural sources as substrates we can minimize environmental problems. Always species of Aspergillus and Candida remain the choice of candidates for the biosynthesis of citric acid. A concise gist of the various natural sources that can be used for the production of citric acid along with the necessary fermentation conditions is presented.
    Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 03/2013; 50(2):367-370. DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2012.05.016 · 2.47 Impact Factor

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May 28, 2014