Article

Citric acid production

Department of Chemical, Biochemical and Ecology Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 5, 1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Biotechnology annual review 02/2007; 13:303-43. DOI: 10.1016/S1387-2656(07)13011-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Citric acid is a commodity chemical produced and consumed throughout The World. It is used mainly in the food and beverage industry, primarily as an acidulant. Although it is one of the oldest industrial fermentations, its World production is still in rapid increasing. Global production of citric acid in 2007 was over 1.6 million tones. Biochemistry of citric acid fermentation, various microbial strains, as well as various substrates, technological processes and product recovery are presented. World production and economics aspects of this strategically product of bulk biotechnology are discussed.

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    • "Fungi are not only producers of drugs, but are also industrially exploited to produce enzymes or food additives. For example, Aspergillus niger is used for large-scale fermentation of citric acid and gluconic acid (Berovic and Legisa 2007; Singh and Kumar 2007). In Asian cuisine, Aspergillus oryzae is used for fermentation of soybeans, saccharification of rice, and production of alcoholic drinks and rice vinegars (Kobayashi et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Fungal genomics revealed a large potential of yet-unexplored secondary metabolites, which are not produced during vegetative growth. The discovery of novel bioactive compounds is increasingly gaining importance. The high number of resistances against established antibiotics requires novel drugs to counteract increasing human and animal mortality rates. In addition, growth of plant pathogens has to be controlled to minimize harvest losses. An additional critical issue is the post-harvest production of deleterious mycotoxins. Fungal development and secondary metabolite production are linked processes. Therefore, molecular regulators of development might be suitable to discover new bioactive fungal molecules or to serve as targets to control fungal growth, development, or secondary metabolite production. The fungal impact is relevant as well for our healthcare systems as for agriculture. We propose here to use the knowledge about mutant strains discovered in fungal model systems for a broader application to detect and explore new fungal drugs or toxins. As examples, mutant strains impaired in two conserved eukaryotic regulatory complexes are discussed. The COP9 signalosome (CSN) and the velvet complex act at the interface between development and secondary metabolism. The CSN is a multi-protein complex of up to eight subunits and controls the activation of CULLIN-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases, which mark substrates with ubiquitin chains for protein degradation by the proteasome. The nuclear velvet complex consists of the velvet-domain proteins VeA and VelB and the putative methyltransferase LaeA acting as a global regulator for secondary metabolism. Defects in both complexes disturb fungal development, light perception, and the control of secondary metabolism. The potential biotechnological relevance of these developmental fungal mutant strains for drug discovery, agriculture, food safety, and human healthcare is discussed.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2014; 98(20). DOI:10.1007/s00253-014-5997-8 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    • "Hence, these microbes are genetically engineered to yield in much higher capacity (Papaginni, 2007). Mutants of A. niger, A. wentii and C. lipolytica are used in industrial production (Berovic and Legisa, 2007). The main advantages of using these mutant organisms are: (i) ease of handling; (ii) ability to ferment a wide variety of cheap raw materials; and (iii) higher yields. "
    Citric Acid: Synthesis, Properties and Applications, 1 edited by Dominic A. Vargas, Josephine V. Medina, 04/2012: chapter 4: pages 97-118; Nova Science Publisher., ISBN: 978-1-62100-353-3
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    • "Citric acid is produced by fermentation at a scale of about 1,600,000 t/a (Papanikolaou et al., 2002, Berovic & Legisa, 2007), and it is sold for about 0.8 €/kg (Weusthuis et al., 2011). The main markets are the food and the pharmaceutical industries as well as applications in cosmetics, detergents and cleaning products. "
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