Control of OXPHOS efficiency by complex I in brain mitochondria.
ABSTRACT In the present work we have analysed the efficiency (P/O ratio) of energy production by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in rat brain, liver and heart mitochondria. This study has revealed tissue-specific differences in the mean values of P/O ratios and ATP production rates. A marked dependence of the P/O ratio on the respiration rates has been observed with complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase), but not with complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) respiratory substrates. The physiological impact of the P/O variations with complex I substrates has been further confirmed by extending the analysis to brain mitochondria from three independent groups of animals utilized to study the effects of dietary treatments on the age-related changes of OXPHOS. The general site-specificity of the rate-dependent P/O variability indicates that the decoupling, i.e. decreased coupling between electron transfer and proton pumping, is likely to be mostly due to slip of mitochondrial complex I. These findings suggest an additional mechanism for the pivotal role played by the energy-conserving respiratory complex I in the physiological and adaptive plasticity of mitochondrial OXPHOS.
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ABSTRACT: Heterotrophic organisms generally face a trade-off between rate and yield of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. This trade-off may result in an evolutionary dilemma, because cells with a higher rate but lower yield of ATP production may gain a selective advantage when competing for shared energy resources. Using an analysis of model simulations and biochemical observations, we show that ATP production with a low rate and high yield can be viewed as a form of cooperative resource use and may evolve in spatially structured environments. Furthermore, we argue that the high ATP yield of respiration may have facilitated the evolutionary transition from unicellular to undifferentiated multicellular organisms.Science 05/2001; 292(5516):504-7. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial mechanistic P/O ratios are still in question. The major studies since 1937 are summarized and various systematic errors are discussed. Values of about 2.5 with NADH-linked substrates and 1.5 with succinate are consistent with most reports after apparent contradictions are explained. Variability of coupling may occur under some conditions but is generally not significant. The fractional values result from the coupling ratios of proton transport. An additional revision of P/O ratios may be required because of a report of the structure of ATP synthase (D. Stock, A.G.W. Leslie, J.E. Walker, Science 286 (1999) 1700-1705) which suggests that the H+/ATP ratio is 10/3, rather than 3, consistent with P/O ratios of 2.3 with NADH and 1.4 with succinate, values that are also possible.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2005; 1706(1-2):1-11. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Functional and structural data are reviewed which provide evidence that proton pumping in cytochrome c oxidase is associated with extended allosteric cooperativity involving the four redox centers in the enzyme . Data are also summarized showing that the H+/e- stoichiometry for proton pumping in the cytochrome span of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is flexible. The DeltapH component of the bulk-phase membrane electrochemical proton gradient exerts a decoupling effect on the proton pump of both the bc1 complex and cytochrome c oxidase. A slip in the pumping efficiency of the latter is also caused by high electron pressure. The mechanistic and physiological implications of proton-pump slips are examined. The easiness with which bulk phase DeltapH causes, at least above a threshold level, decoupling of proton pumping indicates that for active oxidative phosphorylation efficient protonic coupling between redox complexes and ATP synthase takes place at the membrane surface, likely in cristae, without significant formation of delocalized DeltamuH+. A role of slips in modulating oxygen free radical production by the respiratory chain and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is discussed.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2006; 1757(5-6):428-36. · 4.66 Impact Factor