Age changes in processing speed as a leading indicator of cognitive aging.
ABSTRACT Bivariate dual change score models were applied to longitudinal data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging to compare the dynamic predictions of 2-component theories of intelligence and the processing speed theory of cognitive aging. Data from up to 5 measurement occasions covering a 16-year period were available from 806 participants ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first measurement wave. Factors were generated to tap 4 general cognitive domains: verbal ability, spatial ability, memory, and processing speed. Model fitting indicated no dynamic relationship between verbal and spatial factors, providing no support for the hypothesis that age changes in fluid abilities drive age changes in crystallized abilities. The results suggest that, as predicted by the processing speed theory of cognitive aging, processing speed is a leading indicator of age changes in memory and spatial ability, but not verbal ability.
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ABSTRACT: Currently, the legal, technical and psychological regulatory framework of automated driving is being discussed by car manufacturers and researchers to guarantee its safe and smooth introduction into the traffic system. This discussion is accompanied by plenty of studies that seek to study the human side of the interaction with automation and to expose potential problems and hazards. Past research from other domains has shown that the studies' subjects differ considerably, for example in their abilities (e.g. ability to monitor) or in their attitudes (e.g. trust in automation). In this work we discuss potential individual differences – classified into dispositions, stable traits, operator state, attitudes and demographics – that could influence the human performance in interactions with automation. Where they exist, valid methods of measurement are referenced. The review closes with a deduction of potential risk groups that were inferred based on the reviewed literature.Interacción '14: Proceedings of the XV International Conference on Human Computer Interaction; 01/2014
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ABSTRACT: Purpose of the Study: To examine the influence of mastery, physical activity levels, and subsequent trajectories of domains of functional health across the adult life course.The Gerontologist 01/2014; 55(1):120-131. DOI:10.1093/geront/gnu042 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60–75. The estimates were modeled from input from a whole-report assessment based on a theory of visual attention. In addition to the estimates themselves, we present correlational data, and multiple regression analyses between the estimates and self-reported demographic data and lifestyle variables. The regression statistics suggest that education level, video gaming activity, and employment status may significantly impact the encoding/decoding speed of VTSM but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual perceptual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular.Frontiers in Psychology 10/2014; 5(1137). DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01137 · 2.80 Impact Factor