Bivariate dual change score models were applied to longitudinal data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging to compare the dynamic predictions of 2-component theories of intelligence and the processing speed theory of cognitive aging. Data from up to 5 measurement occasions covering a 16-year period were available from 806 participants ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first measurement wave. Factors were generated to tap 4 general cognitive domains: verbal ability, spatial ability, memory, and processing speed. Model fitting indicated no dynamic relationship between verbal and spatial factors, providing no support for the hypothesis that age changes in fluid abilities drive age changes in crystallized abilities. The results suggest that, as predicted by the processing speed theory of cognitive aging, processing speed is a leading indicator of age changes in memory and spatial ability, but not verbal ability.
"The inclusion of extraneous frequency components into the target signal would then lead to concomitant errors in perception. The greater age-related difference for short compared to long duration sounds may be related to a general slowing for processing acoustic information (Finkel et al., 2007; Salthouse, 1996), which could cause a broadening of the temporal integration window. In the present context, the temporal integration window of an auditory evoked response is defined as the minimal stimulus duration that produces maximal amplitude. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related decline in hearing abilities is a ubiquitous part of aging, and commonly impacts speech understanding, especially when there are competing sound sources. While such age effects are partially due to changes within the cochlea, difficulties typically exist beyond measurable hearing loss, suggesting that central brain processes, as opposed to simple peripheral mechanisms (e.g., hearing sensitivity), play a critical role in governing hearing abilities late into life. Current training regimens aimed to improve central auditory processing abilities have experienced limited success in promoting listening benefits. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that in young adults, musical training positively modifies neural mechanisms, providing robust, long-lasting improvements to hearing abilities as well as to non-auditory tasks that engage cognitive control. These results offer the encouraging possibility that musical training might be used to counteract age-related changes in auditory cognition commonly observed in older adults. Here, we reviewed studies that have examined the effects of age and musical experience on auditory cognition with an emphasis on auditory scene analysis. We infer that musical training may offer potential benefits to complex listening and might be utilized as a means to delay or even attenuate declines in auditory perception and cognition that often emerge later in life.
Hearing research 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.heares.2013.06.008 · 2.97 Impact Factor
"Relationships between components of intelligence during typical aging were studied longitudinally over 16 years in 806 participants, ranging in age from 50 to 88 years (Finkel et al. 2007 ). The researchers evaluated how verbal abilities, spatial abilities, memory, and processing speed interacted and one variable impacted change in a related variable. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty neurotypical adults (ages 65-74) were administered three different assessments, as follows: Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT), and Stroop Color and Word Test. Correlation coefficients (Pearson r) indicated a significant but moderate association between MoCA scores and AQT dual-dimension processing speed (p < 0.01). AQT color and color-form combination naming correlated significantly with Stroop Color, Word, and Color-Word t-scores, and the observed statistical power was high. Form naming correlated significantly with Stroop Word and Color-Word measures (p < 0.01). The associations between the AQT color, form, and color-form combination and Stroop interference measures were low and non-significant (p > 0.01). Based on evidence of frontal lobe control of inhibition (Stroop) and bilateral temporal-parietal control of dual-dimension processing speed (AQT), results suggest that the AQT dual-dimension processing-speed and Stroop interference tests may complement each other in differentiating dementias associated with frontal and posterior lesions.
Community Mental Health Journal 06/2014; 51(3). DOI:10.1007/s10597-014-9743-6 · 1.03 Impact Factor
"In addition, there is evidence of differences in the ability to switch between tasks  which could be an important determinant of takeover quality too. Tests for these constructs    could be used to remove bias in the data. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, the legal, technical and psychological regulatory framework of automated driving is being discussed by car manufacturers and researchers to guarantee its safe and smooth introduction into the traffic system. This discussion is accompanied by plenty of studies that seek to study the human side of the interaction with automation and to expose potential problems and hazards. Past research from other domains has shown that the studies' subjects differ considerably, for example in their abilities (e.g. ability to monitor) or in their attitudes (e.g. trust in automation). In this work we discuss potential individual differences – classified into dispositions, stable traits, operator state, attitudes and demographics – that could influence the human performance in interactions with automation. Where they exist, valid methods of measurement are referenced. The review closes with a deduction of potential risk groups that were inferred based on the reviewed literature.
Interacción '14: Proceedings of the XV International Conference on Human Computer Interaction; 01/2014
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