Intravital two-photon imaging of T-cell priming and tolerance in the lymph node.
ABSTRACT Two-photon microscopy makes it possible to image in real-time fluorescently labeled cells located in deep tissue environments. We describe a procedure to visualize the behavior of lymph node T cells during either priming or tolerance, in live, anesthetized mice. Intravital imaging of T lymphocytes is a powerful tool to study the cellular orchestration of adaptive immune responses in physiological settings. This method should provide new insights into the regulation of lymphocyte migration and cell-cell interactions in various immunological contexts.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Immune responses to cancer are dynamic processes which take place through the concerted activity of innate and adaptive cell populations. In order to fully understand the efficacy of immune therapies for cancer, it is critical to understand how the treatment modulates the function of each cell type involved in the anti-tumor immune response. Molecular imaging is a versatile method for longitudinal studies of cellular localization and function. The development of reporter genes for tracking cell movement and function was a powerful addition to the immunologist's toolbox. This review will highlight the advances and challenges in the use of reporter gene imaging to track immune cell localization and function in cancer.Theranostics 04/2012; 2(4):355-62. DOI:10.7150/thno.3903 · 7.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We constructed a multiphoton (2-P) microscope with space to mount and operate microphysiology hardware, and still acquire high quality 2-P images of tumor cells deep within tissues of live mice. We reconfigured for nondescanned 2-P imaging, a dedicated electrophysiology microscope, the Nikon FN1. This microscope is compact, with retractable objectives, allowing more stage space. The instrument is fitted with long-working-distance objectives (2.5- to 3.5-mm WD) with a narrow bore, high NA, and efficient UV and IR light transmission. The system is driven by a powerful 3.5-W peak power pulsed Ti-sapphire laser with a broad tuning range. This 2-P system images a fluorescent standard to a depth of 750 to 800 microm, acquires images of murine pancreatic tumors in vivo, and also images fluorescently labeled T-cells inside live, externalized mouse lymph nodes. Effective imaging depths range between 100 and 500 microm. This compares favorably with the 100- to 300 microm micron depth attained by many 2-P systems, especially descanned 2-P instruments, and 40-microm-deep imaging with confocal microscopes. The greater depth penetration is attributable to the use of high-NA long-working-distance water-dipping lenses incorporated into a nondescanned instrument with carefully configured laser beam introduction and image-acquisition optics. Thus the new system not only has improved imaging capabilities, but allows micromanipulation and maintenance of tissues and organs.Journal of Biomedical Optics 01/2009; 14(2):024032. DOI:10.1117/1.3103783 · 2.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Gram-negative enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri is responsible for the endemic form of bacillary dysentery, an acute rectocolitis in humans. S. flexneri uses a type III secretion system to inject effector proteins into host cells, thus diverting cellular functions to its own benefit. Protective immunity to reinfection requires several rounds of infection to be elicited and is short-lasting, suggesting that S. flexneri interferes with the priming of specific immunity. Considering the key role played by T-lymphocyte trafficking in priming of adaptive immunity, we investigated the impact of S. flexneri on T-cell dynamics in vivo. By using two-photon microscopy to visualize bacterium-T-cell cross-talks in the lymph nodes, where the adaptive immunity is initiated, we provide evidence that S. flexneri, via its type III secretion system, impairs the migration pattern of CD4(+) T cells independently of cognate recognition of bacterial antigens. We show that bacterial invasion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes occurs in vivo, and results in cell migration arrest. In the absence of invasion, CD4(+) T-cell migration parameters are also dramatically altered. Signals resulting from S. flexneri interactions with subcapsular sinus macrophages and dendritic cells, and recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells are likely to contribute to this phenomenon. These findings indicate that S. flexneri targets T lymphocytes in vivo and highlight the role of type III effector secretion in modulating host adaptive immune responses.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2013; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1300981110 · 9.81 Impact Factor