Effect of Plasmonic Gold Nanoparticles on Benign and Malignant Cellular Autofluorescence: A Novel Probe for Fluorescence Based Detection of Cancer
ABSTRACT Due to the strong surface fields of noble metal nanoparticles, absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation is greatly enhanced. Noble metallic nanoparticles represent potential novel optical probes for simultaneous molecular imaging and photothermal cancer therapy using the enhanced scattering and absorption of light. Further, gold nanoparticles can affect molecular fluorescence via chemical, electronic, or photonic interactions. Live cells generate fluorescence due to intracellular and extracellular molecules. Differences in the biochemical composition between healthy and malignant cells can be exploited in vivo to help identify cancer spectroscopically. The interaction of gold nanoparticles with cellular autofluorescence has not yet been characterized. We hypothesized that gold nanoparticles delivered to live cells in vitro would alter cellular autofluorescence and may be useful as a novel class of contrast agent for fluorescence based detection of cancer. The fluorescence of two fluorophores that are responsible for tissue autofluorescence, NADH and collagen, and of two oral squamous carcinoma cell lines and one immortalized benign epithelial cell line were measured in vitro. Gold nanoparticles of different shapes, both spheres and rods, quenched the fluorescence of the soluble NADH and collagen. Reduction of NADH fluorescence was due to oxidation of NADH to NAD+ catalyzed by gold nanoparticles (results we previously published). Reduction of collagen fluorescence appears due to photonic absorption of light. Furthermore, a mean quenching of 12/8% (p<0.00050) of the tissue autofluorescence of cell suspensions was achieved in this model when nanospheres were incubated with the live cells. Gold nanospheres significantly decrease cellular autofluorescence of live cells under physiological conditions when excited at 280nm. This is the first report to our knowledge to suggest the potential of developing targeted gold nanoparticles optical probes as contrast agents for fluorescence based diagnoses of cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Monodisperse dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (diameter = 3.0 nm) were prepared using G5 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer functionalized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI) and Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide as template; in vitro targeting efficacy to integrin receptor expressing cells was confirmed by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and ICP-MS.Soft Matter 01/2008; 4(11):2160-2163. DOI:10.1039/B810885D · 4.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Novel approaches to treat human cancer that are effective with minimal toxicity profiles are needed. We evaluated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in human hepatocellular and pancreatic cancer cells to determine: 1) absence of intrinsic cytotoxicity of the GNPs and 2) external radiofrequency (RF) field-induced heating of intracellular GNPs to produce thermal destruction of malignant cells. GNPs (5 nm diameter) were added to 2 human cancer cell lines (Panc-1, Hep3B). 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and propidium iodide-fluorescence associated cell sorting (PI-FACS) assessed cell proliferation and GNP-related cytotoxicity. Other GNP-treated cells were exposed to a 13.56 MHz RF field for 1, 2, or 5 minutes, and then incubated for 24 hours. PI-FACS measured RF-induced cytotoxicity. GNPs had no impact on cellular proliferation by MTT assay. PI-FACS confirmed that GNPs alone produced no cytotoxicity. A GNP dose-dependent RF-induced cytotoxicity was observed. For Hep3B cells treated with a 67 muM/L dose of GNPs, cytotoxicity at 1, 2 and 5 minutes of RF was 99.0%, 98.5%, and 99.8%. For Panc-1 cells treated at the 67 muM/L dose, cytotoxicity at 1, 2, and 5 minutes of RF was 98.5%, 98.7%, and 96.5%. Lower doses of GNPs were associated with significantly lower rates of RF-induced thermal cytotoxicity for each cell line (P < 0.01). Cells not treated with GNPs but treated with RF for identical time-points had less cytotoxicity (Hep3B: 17.6%, 21%, and 75%; Panc-1: 15.3%, 26.4%, and 39.8%, all P < 0.01). We demonstrate that GNPs 1) have no intrinsic cytotoxicity or anti-proliferative effects in two human cancer cell lines in vitro and 2) GNPs release heat in a focused external RF field. This RF-induced heat release is lethal to cancer cells bearing intracellular GNPs in vitro.Journal of Nanobiotechnology 02/2008; 6(1):2. DOI:10.1186/1477-3155-6-2 · 4.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated different discriminating algorithms for classifying laser-induced fluorescence spectra of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues that were obtained with 325-nm excitation. Mammography and histopathology are the conventional gold standard methods of screening and diagnosis of breast cancers, respectively. The former is prone to a high rate of false-positive results and poses the risk of repeated exposure to ionizing radiation, whereas the latter suffers from subjective interpretations of morphological features. Thus the development of a more reliable detection and screening methodology is of great interest to those practicing breast cancer management. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of optical spectroscopy in diagnosing cancer and other biomedical applications. Autofluorescence spectra of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues, with 325-nm excitation, were recorded. The data were subjected to diverse discriminating algorithms ranging from intensities and ratios of curve-resolved bands to principal components analysis (PCA)-derived parameters. Intensity plots of collagen and NADPH, two known fluorescent biomarkers, yielded accurate classification of the different tissue types. PCA was carried out on both unsupervised and supervised methods, and both approaches yielded accurate classification. In the case of the supervised classification, the developed standard sets were verified and evaluated. The limit test approach provided unambiguous and objective classification, and this method also has the advantage of being user-friendly, so untrained personnel can directly compare unknown spectra against standard sets to make diagnoses instantly, objectively, and unambiguously. The results obtained in this study further support the efficacy of 325-nm-induced autofluorescence, and demonstrate the suitability of limit test analysis as a means of objectively and unambiguously classifying breast tissues.Photomedicine and laser surgery 05/2009; 27(2):241-52. DOI:10.1089/pho.2008.2255 · 1.58 Impact Factor