Spectroscopic and Theoretical Insights into Sequence Effects of Aminofluorene-Induced Conformational Heterogeneity and Nucleotide Excision Repair †

Department of Physical Chemistry , Palacký University of Olomouc, Olmütz, Olomoucký, Czech Republic
Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.02). 10/2007; 46(40):11263-78. DOI: 10.1021/bi700858s
Source: PubMed


A systematic spectroscopic and computational study was conducted in order to probe the influence of base sequences on stacked (S) versus B-type (B) conformational heterogeneity induced by the major dG adduct derived from the model carcinogen 7-fluoro-2-aminofluorene (FAF). We prepared and characterized eight 12-mer DNA duplexes (-AG*N- series, d[CTTCTAG*NCCTC]; -CG*N- series, d[CTTCTCG*NCCTC]), in which the central guanines (G*) were site-specifically modified with FAF with varying flanking bases (N = G, A, C, T). S/B heterogeneity was examined by CD, UV, and dynamic 19F NMR spectroscopy. All the modified duplexes studied followed a typical dynamic exchange between the S and B conformers in a sequence dependent manner. Specifically, purine bases at the 3'-flanking site promoted the S conformation (G > A > C > T). Simulation analysis showed that the S/B energy barriers were in the 14-16 kcal/mol range. The correlation times (tau = 1/kappa) were found to be in the millisecond range at 20 degrees C. The van der Waals energy force field calculations indicated the importance of the stacking interaction between the carcinogen and neighboring base pairs. Quantum mechanics calculations showed the existence of correlations between the total interaction energies (including electrostatic and solvation effects) and the S/B population ratios. The S/B equilibrium seems to modulate the efficiency of Escherichia coli UvrABC-based nucleotide excision repair in a conformation-specific manner: i.e., greater repair susceptibility for the S over B conformation and for the -AG*N- over the -CG*N- series. The results indicate a novel structure-function relationship, which provides insights into how bulky DNA adducts are accommodated by UvrABC proteins.

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    • "The major reaction products of metabolically activated AAF and AF with guanine in DNA include the N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-C8-AAF) and N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene (dG-C8-AF) adducts (Figure 1A) (24). The mutagenicity and tumorigenicity of AF and AAF have been studied extensively (22,23) and the susceptibility of their adducts to human (25–27) and prokaryotic NER (25,28–32) have also been investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleotide excision repair (NER) efficiencies of DNA lesions can vary by orders of magnitude, for reasons that remain unclear. An example is the pair of N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene (dG-C8-AF) and N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-C8-AAF) adducts that differ by a single acetyl group. The NER efficiencies in human HeLa cell extracts of these lesions are significantly different when placed at G(1), G(2) or G(3) in the duplex sequence (5'-CTCG(1)G(2)CG(3)CCATC-3') containing the NarI mutational hot spot. Furthermore, the dG-C8-AAF adduct is a better substrate of NER than dG-C8-AF in all three NarI sequence contexts. The conformations of each of these adducts were investigated by Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods. In the base-displaced conformational family, the greater repair susceptibility of dG-C8-AAF in all sequences stems from steric hindrance effects of the acetyl group which significantly diminish the adduct-base stabilizing van der Waals stacking interactions relative to the dG-C8-AF case. Base sequence context effects for each adduct are caused by differences in helix untwisting and minor groove opening that are derived from the differences in stacking patterns. Overall, the greater NER efficiencies are correlated with greater extents of base sequence-dependent local untwisting and minor groove opening together with weaker stacking interactions.
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