Suriano G, Oliveira MJ, Huntsman D, Mateus AR, Ferreira P, Casares F, Oliveira C, Carneiro F, Machado JC, Mareel M, Seruca RE-cadherin germ line missence mutations and cell phenotype: evidence for the independence of cell invasion on the motile capabilities of the cells. Hum Mol Genet 12(22): 3007-3016
In Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer syndrome, E-cadherin germline mutations of the missense type harbour significant functional consequences. In this study, we have characterised the effect of T340A, A617T, A634V and V832M E-cadherin germline missense mutations on cell morphology, motility and proliferation. Wild-type E-cadherin and A617T expressing cells have an epithelial-like morphology, with polarised cells migrating unidirectionally. T340A and A634V expressing cells, fibroblast-like, have a high motile phenotype. We show that this phenotype is dependent on an increased level of active RhoA. V832M expressing cells grow in piled-up structure of round cells, as an effect of the disturbance of the binding between alpha-catenin and beta-catenin. The destabilisation of the adhesion complex is shown to hamper the motile capabilities of these cells. We did not observe any effect of the E-cadherin mutations on cell proliferation. We show the existence of a genotype-phenotype correlation between different E-cadherin mutations and cell behaviour. However, we demonstrate that the ability of cells expressing the different E-cadherin mutations to invade is independent on their motile capabilities, providing evidence that motility is neither necessary nor sufficient for cells to invade. Our data give new insights into the understanding of the mechanisms linking invasion and E-cadherin mutations in diffuse gastric cancer.
"These molecules are known to play a critical role in cytoskeleton organization and cell motility . It has been revealed that increased RhoA activity, which led to higher migration capacity, was induced by HDGC-associated E-cadherin missense mutations in the extracellular domain . In addition, activation of RhoA through an E-cadherin dependent pathway involves the role of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E-cadherin (epithelial-cadherin), encoded by the CDH1 gene, is a transmembrane glycoprotein playing a crucial role in maintaining cell-cell adhesion. E-cadherin has been reported to be a tumor suppressor and to be down regulated in gastric cancer. Besides genetic mutations in CDH1 gene to induce hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), epigenetic factors such as DNA hypermethylation also contribute to the reduction of E-cadherin in gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, expression of E-cadherin could be mediated by infectious agents such as H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori). As E-cadherin is vitally involved in signaling pathways modulating cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and migration, dysregulation of E-cadherin leads to dysfunction of gastric epithelial cells and contributes to gastric cancer development. Moreover, changes in its expression could reflect pathological conditions of gastric mucosa, making its role in gastric cancer complicated. In this review, we summarize the functions of E-cadherin and the signaling pathways it regulates. We aim to provide comprehensive perspectives in the molecular mechanism of E-cadherin and its involvement in gastric cancer initiation and progression. We also focus on its applications for early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy in gastric cancer in order to open new avenues in this field.
BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:637308. DOI:10.1155/2014/637308 · 3.17 Impact Factor
"Mutations in CDH1 are the genetic cause of up to 48% of the diffusion gastric cancer kindreds , while in contrast to other cancer predisposition syndromes, splice-site and missense mutations are common, suggesting that even reduced E-cadherin expression can be deleterious . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. 5%-10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary and are caused by pathogenic mutations in the considered reference BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. As sequencing technologies evolve, more susceptible genes have been discovered and BRCA1 and BRCA2 predisposition seems to be only a part of the story. These new findings include rare germline mutations in other high penetrant genes, the most important of which include TP53 mutations in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, STK11 mutations in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and PTEN mutations in Cowden syndrome. Furthermore, more frequent, but less penetrant, mutations have been identified in families with breast cancer clustering, in moderate or low penetrant genes, such as CHEK2, ATM, PALB2, and BRIP1. This paper will summarize all current data on new findings in breast cancer susceptibility genes.
"For these mutations we analysed the binding energy between E-cadherin and β-catenin and found that none of them significantly alters the binding affinity of β-catenin, according to FoldX prediction. This is in accordance with the in vitro results showing that the hereditary mutation V832M efficiently binds β-catenin, and its pathogenicity seems to be dependent on the inability of the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex to bind α-catenin , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E-cadherin is critical for the maintenance of tissue architecture due to its role in cell-cell adhesion. E-cadherin mutations are the genetic cause of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC) and missense mutations represent a clinical burden, due to the uncertainty of their pathogenic role. In vitro and in vivo, most mutations lead to loss-of-function, although the causal factor is unknown for the majority. We hypothesized that destabilization could account for the pathogenicity of E-cadherin missense mutations in HDGC, and tested our hypothesis using in silico and in vitro tools. FoldX algorithm was used to calculate the impact of each mutation in E-cadherin native-state stability, and the analysis was complemented with evolutionary conservation, by SIFT. Interestingly, HDGC patients harbouring germline E-cadherin destabilizing mutants present a younger age at diagnosis or death, suggesting that the loss of native-state stability of E-cadherin accounts for the disease phenotype. To elucidate the biological relevance of E-cadherin destabilization in HDGC, we investigated a group of newly identified HDGC-associated mutations (E185V, S232C and L583R), of which L583R is predicted to be destabilizing. We show that this mutation is not functional in vitro, exhibits shorter half-life and is unable to mature, due to premature proteasome-dependent degradation, a phenotype reverted by stabilization with the artificial mutation L583I (structurally tolerated). Herein we report E-cadherin structural models suitable to predict the impact of the majority of cancer-associated missense mutations and we show that E-cadherin destabilization leads to loss-of-function in vitro and increased pathogenicity in vivo.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e33783. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033783 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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