Davee Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurological Sciences, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, 710 N. Lake Shore Dr. Abbott Hall, Room 1123, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.
Neurocritical Care (Impact Factor: 2.44). 02/2008; 8(1):31-5. DOI: 10.1007/s12028-007-9008-0
Temperature regulation in humans is controlled by the hypothalamus. After death by neurological criteria, the hypothalamus ceases to function and poikilothermia ensues. Preservation of normothermia in those patients destined to become organ donors is an important part of maintaining the normal physiology of the organs and organ systems. Typical means of achieving normothermia include increasing the temperature of the ambient air, infrared warming lights, instillation of warmed intravenous fluids, and warm air or water blankets.
In this prospective case series of five organ donors, we used an intravascular temperature modulation catheter (Alsius, Irvine, CA) to maintain normothermia in organ donors declared dead by neurological criteria. Data on accuracy of temperature maintenance at 37 degrees C and nursing ease of use were collected.
This intravascular temperature modulation catheter provided an accurate method of temperature regulation in brain death donor and easier to use from a nursing workload perspective.
Intravascular warming is a viable method for the maintenance of normothermia in organ donors. The experience here provides some insight into the ability of these devices to warm patients in other clinical situations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The understanding of keyhole behavior is always a topic of great importance where many questions are still of concern. We have analyzed the keyhole dynamics in the case of a very simple configuration where we have used full penetration laser welding conditions. We will present the results of the study of these welding configurations, where experimentally a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser has been used, characterized with a 0.4 mm spot diameter and a "top-hat" intensity distribution
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypothermia is a significant contributor to mortality in severely injured patients. Rewarming is an enormous challenge, especially in those who require operative or angiographic intervention. In this patient population, external warming methods are only capable of reducing further heat loss, whereas active rewarming adds heat to the body's core but is invasive. This article analyzes our initial experience with a minimally invasive, continuous, automated, and easily portable intravascular rewarming technique using the Alsius Corporation's CoolGard system. The records of 11 hypothermic critically injured patients presenting to our level 1 trauma center over a 6-month period were reviewed. The patients' mean age was 39 +/- 22 years, 7 (64%) were male, and 7 (64%) had blunt mechanisms of injury. The mean injury severity score was 40 +/- 16, and the mean initial systolic blood pressure was 91 +/- 60 mm Hg. The mean core temperature at the initiation of rewarming was 33.6 +/- 1.0 degrees C, and the mean rewarming rate was 1.5 +/- 1.0 degrees C/h. Six patients died (55%), two of acute exsanguination and four of unsurvivable traumatic brain injuries. One patient developed a deep vein thrombosis at the femoral catheter site and experienced a nonfatal pulmonary embolus. Our experience demonstrates that active intravascular balloon-catheter rewarming represents a practical, automated technique for the immediate and continuous treatment of hypothermia in all phases of the acute care of trauma patients.
Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center) 05/2008; 21(2):120-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia has been an inevitable event accompanying kidney transplantation. Ischemic changes start with brain death, which is associated with severe hemodynamic disturbances: increasing intracranial pressure results in bradycardia and decreased cardiac output; the Cushing reflex causes tachycardia and increased blood pressure; and after a short period of stabilization, systemic vascular resistance declines with hypotension leading to cardiac arrest. Free radical-mediated injury releases proinflammatory cytokines and activates innate immunity. It has been suggested that all of these changes-the early innate response and the ischemic tissue damage-play roles in the development of adaptive responses, which in turn may lead to an acute font of kidney rejection. Hypothermic kidney storage of various durations before transplantation add to ischemic tissue damage. The final stage of ischemic injury occurs during reperfusion. Reperfusion injury, the effector phase of ischemic injury, develops hours or days after the initial insult. Repair and regeneration processes occur together with cellular apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis; the fate of the organ depends on whether cell death or regeneration prevails. The whole process has been described as the ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. It has a profound influence on not only the early but also the late function of a transplanted kidney. Prevention of I-R injury should be started before organ recovery by donor pretreatment. The organ shortage has become one of the most important factors limiting extension of deceased donor kidney transplantation worldwide. It has caused increasing use of suboptimal deceased donors (high risk, extended criteria [ECD], marginal donors) and uncontrolled non-heart-beating (NHBD) donors. Kidneys from such donors are exposed to much greater ischemic damage before recovery and show reduced chances for proper early as well as long-term function. Storage of kidneys, especially those recovered from ECD (or NHBD) donors, should use machine perfusion.
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