Genetic variation in PTPN22 corresponds to altered function of T and B lymphocytes.

Translational Research Program, Benaroya Research Institute, Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 11/2007; 179(7):4704-10. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.179.7.4704
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A variant of the PTPN22 gene, 1858C/T, is associated with an increased risk for the development of a wide array of autoimmune disorders. It is known that the protein tyrosine phosphatase Lyp encoded by this gene has an inhibitory effect on the proximal TCR signaling pathways. However, the consequences of carrying this variant and the mechanism by which it contributes to the development of autoimmunity are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that homozygosity for this variant results in a profound deficit in T cell responsiveness to Ag stimulation. Heterozygosity for the variant allele is associated with reduced responsiveness of CD4+ memory T cells, characterized by diminished calcium mobilization, expression of CD25, and IL-10 production upon TCR stimulation. Additionally, the presence of the variant allele is associated with an increase in circulating memory T cells. We further demonstrate that these effects are not limited to the T cell compartment. Individuals with the variant allele have fewer memory B cells and these cells display a reduced response to stimulation via the BCR indicative of a B cell intrinsic defect. By identifying an immunologic phenotype in healthy subjects which correlates with the PTPN22 1858C/T genotype, we can now explore specific hypotheses regarding pathogenesis of diseases associated with the PTPN22 1858T variant.

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    ABSTRACT: The R620W variant of PTPN22 is one of the major genetic risk factors for several autoimmune disorders including type 1 diabetes (T1D) in humans. In the BioBreeding T1D-prone (BBDP) rat, a single nucleotide polymorphism in Ptpn22 results in an A629T substitution immediately C-terminal to the aliphatic residues central to the Ptpn22-C-terminal Src kinase interaction. This variant exhibits a 50% decrease in C-terminal Src kinase binding affinity and contributes to T cell hyperresponsiveness. Examination of BBDP sublines congenic for the Iddm26.2 locus that includes Ptpn22 has not only shown an expansion of activated CD4(+)25(+) T lymphocytes in animals homozygous for the BBDP allele, consistent with enhanced TCR-mediated signaling, but also a decrease in their proportion of peripheral Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Furthermore, clinical assessment of both an F2(BBDP × ACI.1u.Lyp) cohort and Iddm26.2 congenic BBDP sublines has revealed an association of Ptpn22 with T1D. Specifically, in both cases, T1D risk is significantly greater in BBDP Ptpn22 homozygous and heterozygous animals. These findings are consistent with a role for rat Ptpn22 allelic variation within Iddm26.2 in the regulation of T cell responses, and subsequently the risk for development of T1D. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.