Genetic variation in PTPN22 corresponds to altered function of T and B lymphocytes.
ABSTRACT A variant of the PTPN22 gene, 1858C/T, is associated with an increased risk for the development of a wide array of autoimmune disorders. It is known that the protein tyrosine phosphatase Lyp encoded by this gene has an inhibitory effect on the proximal TCR signaling pathways. However, the consequences of carrying this variant and the mechanism by which it contributes to the development of autoimmunity are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that homozygosity for this variant results in a profound deficit in T cell responsiveness to Ag stimulation. Heterozygosity for the variant allele is associated with reduced responsiveness of CD4+ memory T cells, characterized by diminished calcium mobilization, expression of CD25, and IL-10 production upon TCR stimulation. Additionally, the presence of the variant allele is associated with an increase in circulating memory T cells. We further demonstrate that these effects are not limited to the T cell compartment. Individuals with the variant allele have fewer memory B cells and these cells display a reduced response to stimulation via the BCR indicative of a B cell intrinsic defect. By identifying an immunologic phenotype in healthy subjects which correlates with the PTPN22 1858C/T genotype, we can now explore specific hypotheses regarding pathogenesis of diseases associated with the PTPN22 1858T variant.
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ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in delineating the pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune disease, the puzzle that reveals the true picture of these diverse immunological disorders is yet to be solved. We know that the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci as well as many different genetic susceptibility loci with relatively small effect sizes predispose to various autoimmune diseases and that environmental factors are involved in triggering disease. Models for mechanisms of disease become increasingly complex as relationships between components of both the adaptive and innate immune systems are untangled at the molecular level. In this article, we pose some of the important questions about autoimmunity where the answers will advance our understanding of disease pathogenesis and improve the rational design of novel therapies. How is autoimmunity triggered, and what components of the immune response drive the clinical manifestations of disease? What determines whether a genetically predisposed individual will develop an autoimmune disease? Is restoring immune tolerance the secret to finding cures for autoimmune disease? Current research efforts seek answers to these big questions.02/2015; 7. DOI:10.12703/P7-17
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ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) plays a central role in T cell, B cell and innate immune cell signalling. A genetic variation in Ptpn22 is considered a major risk factor for the development of type 1 diabetes and has been the subject of extensive study. While several reports have addressed how Ptpn22 might predispose to autoimmunity, its involvement in other immune-mediated diseases, such as allograft rejection, has not been explored. To address a possible function for Ptpn22 in allograft rejection, we used a mouse model of pancreatic islet transplantation. We performed transplant tolerance experiments and determined how PTPN22 shapes tolerance induction and maintenance. Ptpn22 (-/-) recipient mice generate higher numbers of alloreactive T cells after allogeneic pancreatic islet transplantation compared with wild-type (WT) mice, but reject grafts with similar kinetics. This is not only due to their well-documented increase in forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3)(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells but also to the expansion of T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells caused by the lack of PTPN22. In addition, a tolerogenic treatment known to induce transplant tolerance in WT mice via Tr1 cell generation is more effective in Ptpn22 (-/-) mice as a consequence of boosting both Tr1 and FOXP3(+) Treg cells. A lack of PTPN22 strengthens transplant tolerance to pancreatic islets by expanding both FOXP3(+) Treg and Tr1 cells. These data suggest that targeting PTPN22 could serve to boost transplant tolerance.Diabetologia 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00125-015-3540-9 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The R620W variant of PTPN22 is one of the major genetic risk factors for several autoimmune disorders including type 1 diabetes (T1D) in humans. In the BioBreeding T1D-prone (BBDP) rat, a single nucleotide polymorphism in Ptpn22 results in an A629T substitution immediately C-terminal to the aliphatic residues central to the Ptpn22-C-terminal Src kinase interaction. This variant exhibits a 50% decrease in C-terminal Src kinase binding affinity and contributes to T cell hyperresponsiveness. Examination of BBDP sublines congenic for the Iddm26.2 locus that includes Ptpn22 has not only shown an expansion of activated CD4(+)25(+) T lymphocytes in animals homozygous for the BBDP allele, consistent with enhanced TCR-mediated signaling, but also a decrease in their proportion of peripheral Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Furthermore, clinical assessment of both an F2(BBDP × ACI.1u.Lyp) cohort and Iddm26.2 congenic BBDP sublines has revealed an association of Ptpn22 with T1D. Specifically, in both cases, T1D risk is significantly greater in BBDP Ptpn22 homozygous and heterozygous animals. These findings are consistent with a role for rat Ptpn22 allelic variation within Iddm26.2 in the regulation of T cell responses, and subsequently the risk for development of T1D. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.