Skin prick test can identify eczematous infants at risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis.
ABSTRACT Assessment of allergic sensitization is not routinely performed in infants and young children with eczema.
To determine whether infants who have atopic eczema (with sensitization) are at a greater risk of developing asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) than those with non-atopic eczema (without concurrent sensitization).
The presence of eczema was prospectively documented until 2 years of age in a birth cohort of 620 infants with a family history of atopic disease. Sensitization status was determined by skin prick tests (SPTs) at 6, 12, and 24 months using six common allergens. Interviews were conducted at 6 and 7 years to determine the presence of asthma and AR.
Within the first 2 years of life, 28.7% of the 443 children who could be classified had atopic eczema: 20.5% had non-atopic eczema, 19.0% were asymptomatic but sensitized and 31.8% were asymptomatic and not sensitized. When compared with children with non-atopic eczema in the first 2 years of life, children with atopic eczema had a substantially greater risk of asthma [odds ratio (OR)=3.52, 95% confidence interval=1.88-6.59] and AR (OR=2.91, 1.48-5.71). The increased risk of asthma was even greater if the infant had a large SPT (OR=4.61, 2.34-9.09) indicative of food allergy. There was no strong evidence that children with non-atopic eczema had an increased risk of asthma or AR compared with asymptomatic children.
In children with eczema within the first 2 years of life, SPT can provide valuable information on the risk of childhood asthma and AR.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Skin testing remains an essential diagnostic tool in modern allergy practice. A significant variability has been reported regarding technical procedures, interpretation of results and documentation. This review has the aim of consolidating methodological recommendations through a critical analysis on past and recent data. This will allow a better understanding on skin prick test (SPT) history; technique; (contra-) indications; interpretation of results; diagnostic pitfalls; adverse reactions; and variability factors.Allergologia et Immunopathologia 37(3):155-64. · 1.04 Impact Factor
Article: Asthma symptoms and bronchial reactivity in school children sensitized to food allergens in infancy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Food allergy in infancy usually disappears but is followed primarily by respiratory allergy. We hypothesized that children allergic to common food allergens in infancy are at increased risk of wheezing illness and bronchial hyperresponsiveness during school age. In a case-control study 69 children 7.2 to 13.3 years of age allergic to egg (N = 60) and/or fish (N = 29) in early life (first 3 years) who attended our allergy outpatient clinic were recruited. They received follow-up for 1 year and were evaluated by parental questionnaire, skin prick testing, spirometry, and metacholine bronchial challenge. Another 154 children (70 sensitized to inhaled allergens) recruited selectively from a general population sample with no history of food allergy during their first 3 years served as control subjects. Twenty-three children (38.3%) maintained their sensitization to egg and 19 (65.5%) to fish; the prevalence of sensitization to > or = 1 inhaled allergen(s) increased from 59.4% to 71% during childhood. Current asthma symptoms were reported more frequently in the study group than in either control groups, sensitized to inhaled allergens and non-sensitized. Children of the study group showed a significantly increased frequency of positive response to metacholine bronchial challenge compared to the control group as a whole; the difference was statistically indicative when study groups separately were compared to the sensitized control subjects. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that bronchial hyperresponsiveness, as well as reported current asthma symptoms were associated with early wheezing and early sensitization to inhaled allergens but not with atopic dermatitis in infancy or persistence of egg or fish allergy. Children allergic to egg or fish in infancy are at increased risk for wheezing illness and hyperactive airways in school age; asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness development is mostly determined by wheezing and senzitization to inhaled allergens in early life regardless of atopic dermatitis in infancy or retention of food allergy.Journal of Asthma 09/2008; 45(7):590-5. · 1.52 Impact Factor
Article: The association between early sensitization patterns and subsequent allergic disease. The DARC birth cohort study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prevention of allergic diseases depends on early identification of clinical markers preceding such disorders. This study describes the natural course of sensitization as measured by skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (S-IgE) and analyses the association between early sensitization patterns and subsequent allergic disease at 6 yr of age. In an ongoing population-based birth cohort study of 562 children, follow-up visits were performed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36, and 72 months. Visits included an interview, physical examination, SPTs, and S-IgE measurements for 12 food and inhalant allergens. The frequency of S-IgE sensitization to > or = 1 inhalant allergen was constant from 0 to 6 months (9-10%), decreased at 12-18 months before increasing from 36 months onwards. S-IgE sensitization to at least one food allergen remained constant from 0 to 6 yr. SPT sensitization to food and inhalant allergens appeared from 3 and 12 months, respectively. Early food sensitization (S-IgE) between 3 and 18 months was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) associated with atopic dermatitis (OR: 4.0 [1.6-9.9]) and asthma (OR 4.0 [1.1-12.5]) at the age of 6 yr. Children with atopic dermatitis, asthma, or rhinoconjunctivitis, and sensitization at 6 yr, were sensitized to food allergens to a large extent (53%, 42%, and 47%, respectively) already at 6 months. Early inhalant sensitization (S-IgE) did not increase the risk of later allergic disease. Early atopic dermatitis (0-18 months) was also highly associated with subsequent allergic disease. Children with early food sensitization and/or atopic dermatitis would be a proper target group for future interventional studies.Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 09/2009; 20(8):726-34. · 2.46 Impact Factor