Article

Reduced bone cortical thickness in boys with autism or autism spectrum disorder

Division-of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510, USA.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.34). 09/2007; 38(5):848-56. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-007-0453-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bone development, casein-free diet use, supplements, and medications were assessed for 75 boys with autism or autism spectrum disorder, ages 4-8 years. Second metacarpal bone cortical thickness (BCT), measured on hand-wrist radiographs, and % deviations in BCT from reference medians were derived. BCT increased with age, but % deviations evidenced a progressive fall-off (p = .02): +3.1 +/- 4.7%, -6.5 +/- 4.0%, -16.6 +/- 3.4%, -19.4 +/- 3.7%,-24.1 +/- 4.4%, at ages 4-8, respectively, adjusting for height. The 12% of the boys on casein-free diets had an overall % deviation of -18.9 +/- 3.7%, nearly twice that of boys on minimally restricted or unrestricted diets (-10.5 +/- 1.3%, p < .04), although even for boys on minimally restricted or unrestricted diets the % deviation was highly significant (p < .001). Our data suggest that the bone development of autistic boys should be monitored as part of routine care, especially if they are on casein-free diets.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
86 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aimed to compare body mass index( BMI) and healthy eating index( HEI) in children with autism spectrum disorder( ASD, n = 105) and typically developing (TD, n = 495) children.They were aged 6–9years,lived in Valencia (Spain) and came from similar cultural and socio-economic backgrounds.In this case–control study,the weight,height and BMI were measured for both groups.Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake.Although the differences between children with ASD and TD children in raw BMI (p = 0.44),BMI z-score (p = 0.37),HEI(p = 0.43)and total energy intake (p = 0.86) were not significant,children with ASD and the boys subgroup were shorter (p = 0.01),but not the girls subgroup,compared to TD children of the same gender.Using the controls values as a reference,the BMI distribution in children with ASD be came distorted,with values below the 5th percentile (11%vs.4%, p = 0.03) and above the 95th percentile (8%vs.5%, p = 0.04).The gender-and age-adjusted odds ratios for being underweight in the groups of all children and boys with ASD were 3.03 and 2.39,respectively,vs.TD children.Our data suggest that routine monitoring of children with ASD should include anthropometric measurements and assessment of their dietary habits
    Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 10/2014; 9(2015)26–33. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.09.013 · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication deficits and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior. Several medical conditions including gastrointestinal (GI) problems, asthma and allergies have been associated with ASD, and multiple risk factors, both genetic and environmental, have been proposed. Among them, vitamin D (VD) deficiency is probably associated with ASD, and may play a role in the condition. We conducted a systematic review of the literature for the period January 1, 2010 through June 15, 2014, according to PRISMA guidelines, aiming to investigate the complex biological interplay between VD, metabolism, immune system and nervous system in ASD. Different trends in the association between ASD and VD deficiency have been observed, and factors such as gender, ethnicity, sampling, and methodology play a role in the results and outcomes. At present, for at least a subgroup of ASD individuals, an imbalance in VD metabolism probably exists and may be associated with the condition. In this cohort, VD replacement in these individuals might contribute to improving ASD symptoms and/or associated conditions. This topic is an important challenge for future research, and could lead to a new tailored therapeutic approach for VD in ASD.
    Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 09/2014; 8(12):1685-1698. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.09.003 · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adequate nutrient intake is essential for health.Due to food selectivity and restrictive diets, people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have impaired nutritional status, which could affect their growth.We present a systematic review of publications (1970– 2013) on anthropometric measurements and nutritional assessment in this population. The limited research published on growth and nutritional status has found contradictory results. Nutritional assessment has indicated limited food variety in the ASD population but has not confirmed significant differences with respect to recommended intakes or controls. In addition to the lack of control groups,studies in this area have suffered from methodological weaknesses,including unclear selection criteria, analysis of single individuals or small or age-heterogeneous samples,and failure to consider phenotypic variability between individuals or alternative explanations.Therefore,further research is warranted,particularly randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes.
    Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 11/2014; 9 (2015):130-143. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.08.012 · 2.96 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
0 Downloads
Available from
Feb 23, 2015