C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in acute stroke patients with and without sleep apnea
ABSTRACT Although sleep apnea (SA) is a risk factor for ischemic stroke and an important prognosticator in affected patients, the exact pathophysiological link between SA and stroke remains to be established. We investigated whether levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen are increased in patients with acute stroke and SA compared with stroke patients without SA.
117 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke admitted to our stroke unit within 12 h after stroke onset were included in this study. On admission, CRP and fibrinogen levels were determined. All patients received cardiorespiratory polygraphy during the first 72 h of their hospital stay. In all patients, demographic data, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and cerebrovascular risk factors were assessed.
SA defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of > or =10/h was found in 64 (55%) patients. Elevated CRP and fibrinogen levels were seen twice as often in patients with SA than in patients without (CRP: 52 vs. 26%; fibrinogen: 72 vs. 37%). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, an AHI of > or =10/h was independently correlated with raised levels of both of these parameters.
SA is independently associated with raised levels of CRP and fibrinogen in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We assume that both proteins are part of the pathophysiological pathway linking SA to stroke.
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a predictor of all-cause mortality and recurrent vascular events following stroke. However, few studies have investigated the pathophysiology of OSA in ischemic stroke patients. Whether OSA independently increases arterial stiffness in ischemic stroke patients is determined by measuring the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and via the central augmentation index (AIx). This cross-sectional study consecutively recruited 127 subacute ischemic stroke patients who were admitted to a teaching hospital for inpatient rehabilitation (median age, 61.3 years; IQR 53.6-72.7 years). Vascular measurements were performed following polysomnography. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between arterial stiffness and OSA. Patients with severe OSA were significantly older, had significantly higher PWV and mean blood pressure, and a significantly higher risk of hypertension than those with non-severe OSA. The significant bivariate correlation between AIx@75 and the desaturation index (DI) (Spearman's ρ = 0.182, P = 0.040) became insignificant by multivariate regression analysis. The PWV was significantly correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (Pearson's r = 0.350, P = 0.000) and DI (Spearman's ρ = 0.347, P = 0.000). The correlation between PWV and OSA parameters, including presence of severe OSA, AHI and DI, remained significant by multivariate regression analysis with age, systolic blood pressure, diabetic mellitus, hypertension and the Barthel index as potential confounders. Arterial stiffness is independently associated with OSA, and PWV can be applied as an intermediate endpoint in further intervention trials of ischemic stroke patients with OSA.Journal of Neurology 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00415-015-7699-2 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the mortality and further cardiovascular risk in subjects with ischemic stroke remains a contentious issue. Oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction due to OSA have seldom been studied in stable ischemic stroke patients.Patients/Methods This cross-sectional, prospective study involved 92 consecutive ischemic stroke patients who were admitted to the Rehabilitation ward. All subjects received polysomnography and laboratory tests for oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers, including: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine. Differences in study variables between patients with or without severe OSA were compared, and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between OSA severity and target biomarkers.ResultsParticipants in the severe OSA group were significantly older (p=0.002), had a significantly higher risk of hypertension (p=0.021) and a lower level of CRP (p=0.006). Among the subjects with ischemic stroke and severe OSA, the levels of CRP, IL-6 and TAC were positively correlated with the desaturation index (DI) and the TAC levels were negatively correlated with mean arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2). Regression analysis results indicated that the TAC levels remained significantly and negatively correlated with mean SaO2 levels. Moreover, the CRP levels remained significantly correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index and DI after controlling for covariates.Conclusions The present study demonstrated that a preferentially adaptive antioxidative response to hypoxia emerges, and the role of OSA with respect to inflammatory reaction is attenuated, in ischemic stroke patients with OSA.Sleep Medicine 11/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.07.027 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked to and is associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity. Ongoing inflammatory responses play an important role in this association. Multiple small size studies addressing the profile of the inflammatory markers in OSA are available therefore we performed a meta-analysis. Systematic review of medical literature was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases from 1968 to 2011 by utilizing the key words obstructive sleep apnea, C-Reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) and Selectins. Inclusion criteria were: full text English articles; studies with adult population; reported values for at least one of the markers of interest; with at least two separate groups (subjects with OSA and control group); OSA was defined as AHI of ≥ 5/h. Five hundred and twelve studies were reviewed for inclusion with 51 studies pooled for analysis (30 studies for CRP, 19 studies for TNF-α, 8 studies for ICAM, 18 studies for IL-6, six studies for VCAM and 5 studies for Selectins). The levels of inflammatory markers were higher in patients with OSA compared to control group. Standardized pooled Mean differences were calculated to be 1.77 for CRP, 1.03 for TNF-α, 2.16 for IL-6, 4.22 for IL-8, 2.93 for ICAM, 1.45 for Selectins and 2.08 for VCAM. In this meta-analysis, the levels of systemic inflammatory markers were found to be higher in OSA patients compared to control subjects. Nadeem R; Molnar J; Madbouly EM; Nida M; Aggarwal S; Sajid H; Naseem J; Loomba R. Serum inflammatory markers in obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):1003-1012.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2013; 9(10):1003-1012. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.3070 · 2.83 Impact Factor