C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in acute stroke patients with and without sleep apnea
ABSTRACT Although sleep apnea (SA) is a risk factor for ischemic stroke and an important prognosticator in affected patients, the exact pathophysiological link between SA and stroke remains to be established. We investigated whether levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen are increased in patients with acute stroke and SA compared with stroke patients without SA.
117 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke admitted to our stroke unit within 12 h after stroke onset were included in this study. On admission, CRP and fibrinogen levels were determined. All patients received cardiorespiratory polygraphy during the first 72 h of their hospital stay. In all patients, demographic data, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and cerebrovascular risk factors were assessed.
SA defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of > or =10/h was found in 64 (55%) patients. Elevated CRP and fibrinogen levels were seen twice as often in patients with SA than in patients without (CRP: 52 vs. 26%; fibrinogen: 72 vs. 37%). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, an AHI of > or =10/h was independently correlated with raised levels of both of these parameters.
SA is independently associated with raised levels of CRP and fibrinogen in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We assume that both proteins are part of the pathophysiological pathway linking SA to stroke.
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is related to increased systemic inflammation and arterial hypertension. We hypothesize that OSA is frequent in patients with acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is related to the perihematoma edema. Thirty-two non-comatose patients with a hypertensive ICH underwent polysomnography in the acute phase. Perihematoma edema volume was measured on CT scans at admission, after 24 h (early control) and after 4-5 days (late control). The Spearman coefficient (r(s)) was used for correlations. OSA occurred in 19 (59.4%) patients. The apnea-hypopnea index was correlated with relative edema at admission CT (r(s) = 0.40; p = 0.031), early CT (r(s) = 0.46; p = 0.011) and at late CT (r(s) = 0.59; p = 0.006). OSA is highly frequent during the acute phase of hypertensive ICH and is related to perihematoma edema.Cerebrovascular Diseases 11/2009; 29(1):36-42. DOI:10.1159/000255972 · 3.70 Impact Factor
Article: Pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sleep-induced apnea and disordered breathing refers to intermittent, cyclical cessations or reductions of airflow, with or without obstructions of the upper airway (OSA). In the presence of an anatomically compromised, collapsible airway, the sleep-induced loss of compensatory tonic input to the upper airway dilator muscle motor neurons leads to collapse of the pharyngeal airway. In turn, the ability of the sleeping subject to compensate for this airway obstruction will determine the degree of cycling of these events. Several of the classic neurotransmitters and a growing list of neuromodulators have now been identified that contribute to neurochemical regulation of pharyngeal motor neuron activity and airway patency. Limited progress has been made in developing pharmacotherapies with acceptable specificity for the treatment of sleep-induced airway obstruction. We review three types of major long-term sequelae to severe OSA that have been assessed in humans through use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and in animal models via long-term intermittent hypoxemia (IH): 1) cardiovascular. The evidence is strongest to support daytime systemic hypertension as a consequence of severe OSA, with less conclusive effects on pulmonary hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. The underlying mechanisms mediating hypertension include enhanced chemoreceptor sensitivity causing excessive daytime sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, combined with overproduction of superoxide ion and inflammatory effects on resistance vessels. 2) Insulin sensitivity and homeostasis of glucose regulation are negatively impacted by both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep disruption, but whether these influences of OSA are sufficient, independent of obesity, to contribute significantly to the "metabolic syndrome" remains unsettled. 3) Neurocognitive effects include daytime sleepiness and impaired memory and concentration. These effects reflect hypoxic-induced "neural injury." We discuss future research into understanding the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as a basis for uncovering newer forms of treatment of both the ventilatory disorder and its multiple sequelae.Physiological Reviews 01/2010; 90(1):47-112. DOI:10.1152/physrev.00043.2008 · 29.04 Impact Factor