Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in Wistar rats after intravenous administration of ATRA loaded into tributyrin submicron emulsion and its cellular activity on caco-2 and HepG2 cell lines.
ABSTRACT The pharmacokinetics of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), an anti-cancer drug was highly variable due to its poor aqueous solubility. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of ATRA in male Wistar rats following intravenous administration of the ATRA loaded tributyrin emulsion. In vitro, the ATRA emulsion was proved binding to apolipoprotein(s). In vivo, the clearance of ATRA was significantly reduced by formulating into the tributyrin emulsion, leading to higher AUCs. Co-administration with 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, a compound known to upregulate the activity of low-density lipoprotein receptors in tissues, significantly increased the K(e), V, and CL of ATRA. The variation of plasma AUCs after administering the ATRA emulsion to the healthy rats was two times less than that after the ATRA solution. The IC(50) in ATRA of the ATRA emulsion for the Caco-2 carcinoma cells was 3.8 microg/mL lower than 6 microg/mL of the ATRA solution. The IC(50) of the emulsion for the HepG2 carcinoma cells was 2.8 microg/mL, while IC(50) was not achieved with the ATRA solution over the test concentration range. The finding indicated that the tributyrin emulsion could be used as a carrier for ATRA and enhances the drug effect by reducing the clearance and increasing the in vitro activity.
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ABSTRACT: The status of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) in seven human glioma cell lines was evaluated to extend our knowledge of human glioblastoma multiforme tumor metabolism for future drug design. Cell lines SF-767, SF-763, A-172, U-87 MG, U-251 MG, U-343 MG, and SF-539 were used. Binding of 125I-labeled LDL to these cells at 4 degrees C was carried out to determine the number of LDL receptors on cells and the affinity of LDL for these receptors. The content of LRP was measured by immunoblotting. The presence of specific saturable LDL receptors was proven in six of the cell lines investigated. SF-767 cells revealed high-affinity LDL binding (equilibrium dissociation constant, Kd = 7 nM) and maximum binding capacity approximating 300,000 receptors/cell. Most of the remaining cell lines had relatively lower affinity (Kd = 38-62 nM) but also had very high numbers of receptors (128,000-950,000/cell). All cell lines exhibited LRP, but the expression was variable. The cell lines SF-539, U-87 MG, and U-343 MG were particularly rich in this protein. The data suggest that glioblastoma cells have high numbers of LDL receptors; however, there is considerable variation in binding affinity. Overall, this finding suggests that LDL receptors on glioblastoma cells could potentially be useful for targeting antitumor agents. LRP, a multifunctional receptor expressed on glioblastoma cells, also has the possibility for serving as a therapeutic target.Cancer Research 05/2000; 60(8):2300-3. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We had previously shown in acute leukemia and in breast and ovary carcinoma patients that a cholesterol-rich emulsion (LDE) that binds to receptors for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may concentrate in neoplastic tissues. In this study, the potential of LDE as a carrier for anticancer drugs was investigated. LDE was associated with carmustine, and the cytotoxicity of the LDE-carmustine complex was studied in a neoplastic cell line and its biodistribution was studied in mice. The plasma kinetics of the complex and its uptake by tumor and normal tissue were determined in cancer patients. Finally, an exploratory clinical study to determine the toxicity profile of LDE-carmustine at escalating dose levels was conducted in 42 advanced cancer patients refractory to conventional chemotherapy. Carmustine formed a stable association with LDE. The pharmacological action of carmustine, as tested in cancer cells, was not diminished by association with LDE compared with the free drug and was indeed mediated by the LDL receptor. The biodistribution in mice and plasma kinetics in patients of the emulsion were not changed by association of the drug. The uptake of LDE-carmustine by tumor was severalfold greater than the uptake by the corresponding normal tissue. Finally, patients treated with LDE-carmustine showed negligible side effects even at very high dose levels. Association with LDE preserves the cytotoxicity of carmustine and markedly diminishes its side effects.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 07/2002; 49(6):487-98. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The low-density lipoprotein receptor mediates cholesterol homeostasis through endocytosis of lipoproteins. It discharges its ligand in the endosome at pH < 6. In the crystal structure at pH = 5.3, the ligand-binding domain (modules R2 to R7) folds back as an arc over the epidermal growth factor precursor homology domain (the modules A, B, beta propeller, and C). The modules R4 and R5, which are critical for lipoprotein binding, associate with the beta propeller via their calcium-binding loop. We propose a mechanism for lipoprotein release in the endosome whereby the beta propeller functions as an alternate substrate for the ligand-binding domain, binding in a calcium-dependent way and promoting lipoprotein release.Science 01/2003; 298(5602):2353-8. · 31.20 Impact Factor