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Available from: Rohan Samarakoon, Jul 02, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Hyaluronic acid (HA), a glycosaminoglycan located between keratinocytes in the epidermis, accumulates dramatically following skin wounding. To study inductive mechanisms, a rat keratinocyte organotypic culture model that faithfully mimics HA metabolism was used. Organotypic cultures were needle-punctured 100 times, incubated for up to 24 hours, and HA analyzed by histochemical and biochemical methods. Within 15 minutes post-injury, HA levels had elevated two-fold, increasing to four-fold by 24 hours. HA elevations far from the site of injury suggested the possible involvement of a soluble HA-inductive factor. Media transfer experiments (from wounded cultures to unwounded cultures) confirmed the existence of a soluble factor. From earlier evidence, we hypothesized that an EGF-like growth factor might be responsible. This was confirmed as follows: (1) EGFR kinase inhibitor (AG1478) completely prevented wounding-induced HA accumulation. (2) Rapid tyrosine-phosphorylation of EGFR correlated well with the onset of increased HA synthesis. (3) A neutralizing antibody that recognizes heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) blocked wounding-induced HA synthesis by > or =50%. (4) Western analyses showed that release of activated HB-EGF (but neither amphiregulin nor EGF) occured after wounding. In summary, rapid HA accumulation after epidermal wounding occurs through a mechanism requiring cleavage of HB-EGF and activation of EGFR signaling.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 02/2009; 129(8):2046-58. DOI:10.1038/jid.2009.9 · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) expression and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification accompany the emergence of highly aggressive human carcinomas. Cooperative signaling between these two growth factor/receptor systems promotes cell migration and synthesis of stromal remodeling factors (i.e., proteases, protease inhibitors) that, in turn, regulate tumor invasion, neo-angiogenesis and inflammation. ranscript profiling of transformed human cells revealed that genes encoding wound healing, matrix remodeling and cell cycle proteins (i.e., the "tissue repair" transcriptome) are significantly up-regulated early after growth factor stimulation. The major inhibitor of plasmin generation, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), is among the most highly induced transcripts during the phenotypic transition initiated by TGF-beta maximal expression requires EGFR signaling. PAI-1 induction occurs early in the progression of incipient epidermal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and is a significant indicator of poor prognosis in epithelial malignancies. Mouse modeling and molecular genetic analysis of complex systems indicates that PAI-1 regulates the temporal/spatial control of pericellular proteolysis, promotes epithelial plasticity, inhibits capillary regression and facilitates stromal invasion. Defining TGF-beta1-initiated signaling events that cooperate with an activated EGFR to impact the protease-protease inhibitor balance in the tumor microenvironment is critical to the development of novel therapies for the clinical management of human cancers.
    Journal of Oncology 02/2009; 2009:342391. DOI:10.1155/2009/342391
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    ABSTRACT: Cutaneous tissue injury, both in vivo and in vitro, initiates activation of a "wound repair" transcriptional program. One such highly induced gene encodes plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1, SERPINE1). PAI-1-GFP, expressed as a fusion protein under inducible control of +800 bp of the wound-activated PAI-1 promoter, prominently "marked" keratinocyte migration trails during the real-time of monolayer scrape-injury repair. Addition of active recombinant PAI-1 to wounded wild-type keratinocyte monolayers as well as to PAI-1(-/-) MEFs and PAI-1(-/-) keratinocytes significantly stimulated directional motility above basal levels in all cell types. PAI-1 expression knockdown or antibody-mediated functional inhibition, in contrast, effectively attenuated injury repair. The defect in wound-associated migratory activity as a consequence of antisense-mediated PAI-1 down-regulation was effectively reversed by addition of recombinant PAI-1 immediately after scrape injury. One possible mechanism underlying the PAI-1-dependent motile response may involve fine control of the keratinocyte substrate detachment/re-attachment process. Exogenous PAI-1 significantly enhanced keratinocyte spread cell "footprint" area while PAI-1 neutralizing antibodies, but not control non-immune IgG, effectively inhibited spreading with apoptotic hallmarks evident within 24 h. Importantly, PAI-1 not only stimulated keratinocyte adhesion and wound-initiated planar migration but also rescued keratinocytes from plasminogen-induced substrate detachment/anoikis. The early transcriptional response of the PAI-1 gene to monolayer trauma and its prominence in the injury repair genetic signature are consistent with its function as both a survival factor and regulator of the time course of epithelial migration as part of the cutaneous injury response program.
    Archives for Dermatological Research 08/2008; 300(6):303-10. DOI:10.1007/s00403-008-0845-2 · 2.27 Impact Factor