Craniotomy and clipping of intracranial aneurysm in a stereoscopic virtual reality environment.
ABSTRACT The release of results of International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial in 2003 caused a shift in the paradigm of management of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The cases selected for microsurgical clipping nowadays are usually those patients with aneurysms that are not suitable for embolization, and are often complex and difficult. We devised an innovative application of operative planning and training for craniotomy and microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms in a stereoscopic virtual reality environment.
Patient-specific Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data from computed tomographic angiography of the intracranial circulation and cranium were transferred to the workstation (Dextroscope; Volume Interactions Pte. Ltd., Singapore, Singapore). An aneurysm clip database was loaded into the patient data set. Three-dimensional volume rendering was followed by data coregistration and fusion.
Virtual head positioning and craniotomy were carried out to simulate the microscopic visualization. Clip selection could be carried out with reference to the angle of application. This allows one to see the exposure and degree of obliteration of an aneurysm with the various angles of approach.
The virtual craniotomy and microsurgical clipping application simulated the operative environment. Its role in neurosurgical training is encouraging and should be further developed.
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ABSTRACT: Living anatomy, defined as the anatomy revealed on living humans, is gaining importance in modern anatomy education, and has even been considered to replace cadaver-based anatomy study. We discussed the modalities through which living anatomy can be studied and explore the feasibility of using them to replace cadaver-based anatomy. We believe that the study of anatomy via the three main modalities of living anatomy, namely, surface anatomy, medical imaging and surgical procedures, rely on a foundation of sound knowledge of the three-dimensional anatomy. While a cadaver is still the best study material for the construction of a three-dimensional image of human anatomy, considering the pressure to reduce the hours geared towards anatomy education, education in anatomy in 21 st century must be revolutionized to utilize the state-of–the-art modalities to formulate a contemporary anatomy course. Such modalities allow students to carry on self –directed learning, leading to a positive outcome in anatomy education. The problem arises if we have to incorporate more living anatomy, the time necessary for dissection needs to be minimized or compromised. We sincerely believe that the time has come to address this issue in the anatomy curriculum.
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ABSTRACT: With the decrease in the number of cerebral aneurysms treated surgically and the increase of complexity of those treated surgically, there is a need for simulation-based tools to teach future neurosurgeons the operative techniques of aneurysm clipping. To develop and evaluate the usefulness of a new haptic-based virtual reality simulator in the training of neurosurgical residents. A real-time sensory haptic feedback virtual reality aneurysm clipping simulator was developed using the ImmersiveTouch platform. A prototype middle cerebral artery aneurysm simulation was created from a computed tomographic angiogram. Aneurysm and vessel volume deformation and haptic feedback are provided in a 3-dimensional immersive virtual reality environment. Intraoperative aneurysm rupture was also simulated. Seventeen neurosurgery residents from 3 residency programs tested the simulator and provided feedback on its usefulness and resemblance to real aneurysm clipping surgery. Residents thought that the simulation would be useful in preparing for real-life surgery. About two-thirds of the residents thought that the 3-dimensional immersive anatomic details provided a close resemblance to real operative anatomy and accurate guidance for deciding surgical approaches. They thought the simulation was useful for preoperative surgical rehearsal and neurosurgical training. A third of the residents thought that the technology in its current form provided realistic haptic feedback for aneurysm surgery. Neurosurgical residents thought that the novel immersive VR simulator is helpful in their training, especially because they do not get a chance to perform aneurysm clippings until late in their residency programs.Neurosurgery 01/2015; DOI:10.1227/NEU.0000000000000583 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over years, surgical training is changing and years of tradition are being challenged by legal and ethical concerns for patient safety, work hour restrictions, and the cost of operating room time. Surgical simulation and skill training offer an opportunity to teach and practice advanced techniques before attempting them on patients. Simulation training can be as straightforward as using real instruments and video equipment to manipulate simulated "tissue" in a box trainer. More advanced virtual reality (VR) simulators are now available and ready for widespread use. Early systems have demonstrated their effectiveness and discriminative ability. Newer systems enable the development of comprehensive curricula and full procedural simulations. A PubMed review of the literature was performed for the MESH words "Virtual reality, "Augmented Reality", "Simulation", "Training", and "Neurosurgery". Relevant articles were retrieved and reviewed. A review of the literature was performed for the history, current status of VR simulation in neurosurgery. Surgical organizations are calling for methods to ensure the maintenance of skills, advance surgical training, and credential surgeons as technically competent. The number of published literature discussing the application of VR simulation in neurosurgery training has evolved over the last decade from data visualization, including stereoscopic evaluation to more complex augmented reality models. With the revolution of computational analysis abilities, fully immersive VR models are currently available in neurosurgery training. Ventriculostomy catheters insertion, endoscopic and endovascular simulations are used in neurosurgical residency training centers across the world. Recent studies have shown the coloration of proficiency with those simulators and levels of experience in the real world. Fully immersive technology is starting to be applied to the practice of neurosurgery. In the near future, detailed VR neurosurgical modules will evolve to be an essential part of the curriculum of the training of neurosurgeons.Surgical Neurology International 04/2011; 2:52. DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.80117 · 1.18 Impact Factor