Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) reduces the expression of morphine- but not of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in rats.
ABSTRACT Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) has been described as an anti-opioid peptide. It plays a role in opioid antinociception, dependence and tolerance. Previous study has indicated that 1DMe ([D-Tyr(1), (NMe)Phe(3)]NPFF), a stable analog of NPFF, inhibits acquisition of the rewarding effect of morphine but not of ethanol in mice. The rewarding effects of these drugs were measured in the unbiased paradigm of conditioned place preference (CPP). The present study examines the influence of NPFF on the expression of morphine- and ethanol-induced CPP in the biased procedure in rats. Our experiments showed that NPFF, given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 nmol, inhibited the expression of morphine-induced CPP. NPFF gave itself, neither induced place preference nor aversion, although a tendency to aversive effect was seen at the highest dose of 20 nmol. NPFF did not indicate fear behavior in the elevated plus maze test, and did not disturb locomotor activity of rats. However, NPFF was unable to inhibit the expression of ethanol-induced CPP. Probably this effect is due to the fact that ethanol reward is a more complex process and apart from the role of opioids, there are other neurotransmitters also involved in this mechanism. These results suggest that NPFF is involved in the expression of morphine reward. Moreover, our study supports an anti-opioid character of this peptide.
Article: Combination opioid analgesics.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although there is no "ideal analgesic," scientists and clinicians alike continue to search for compounds with qualities which may approach the "ideal analgesic." Characteristics of an "ideal" analgesic may include: the agent is a full agonist providing optimal/maximal analgesia for a wide range/variety of pain states (e.g., broad spectrum analgesic activity), it does not exhibit tolerance, it produces no unwanted effects and minimal adverse effects, it has no addictive potential, it does not facilitate pain/hyperalgesia, it has a long duration, it has high oral bioavailability, it is not vulnerable to important drug interactions, it is not significantly bound to plasma proteins, it has no active metabolites, it has linear kinetics, and it is eliminated partly by hydrolysis to an inactive metabolite (without involvement of oxidative and conjugative enzymes). Investigators have concentrated on ways to alter existing analgesics or to combine existing analgesic compounds with compounds which may improve efficacy over time or minimize adverse effects. The addition of an analgesic with a second agent (which may or may not also be an analgesic) to achieve a "combination analgesic" is a concept which has been exploited for many years. Although there may be many reasons to add 2 agents together in efforts to achieve analgesia, for purposes of this article - reasons for combining an opioid with a second agent to produce a combination opioid analgesic may be classified into 6 major categories: 1.) combinations to prolong analgesic duration; 2.) combinations to enhance or optimize analgesic efficacy (e.g., analgesic synergy); 3.) combinations to diminish or minimize adverse effects; 4.) combinations to diminish opioid effects which are not beneficial (or contrariwise to or enhance beneficial opioid effects); 5.) combinations to reduce opioid tolerance/opioid-induced hyperalgesia; and 6.) combinations to combat dependency issues/addiction potential/craving sensations. Combination opioid analgesics are one avenue which may give rise to "pain pills" with improved analgesic profiles over existing analgesic medications.Pain physician 11(2):201-14. · 10.72 Impact Factor