Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration.
ABSTRACT Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca(2+)/CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration.
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ABSTRACT: The role of olfactory marker protein (OMP), a hallmark of mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), has been poorly understood since its discovery. The electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes of OMP knockout mice indicated that OMP influences olfactory signal transduction. However, the mechanism by which this occurs remained unknown. We used intact olfactory epithelium obtained from WT and OMP(-/-) mice to monitor the Ca(2+) dynamics induced by the activation of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels, or Ca(2+) stores in single dendritic knobs of OSNs. Our data suggested that OMP could act to modulate the Ca(2+)-homeostasis in these neurons by influencing the activity of the plasma membrane Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger (NCX). Immunohistochemistry verifies colocalization of NCX1 and OMP in the cilia and knobs of OSNs. To test the role of NCX activity, we compared the kinetics of Ca(2+) elevation by stimulating the reverse mode of NCX in both WT and OMP(-/-) mice. The resulting Ca(2+) responses indicate that OMP facilitates NCX activity and allows rapid Ca(2+) extrusion from OSN knobs. To address the mechanism by which OMP influences NCX activity in OSNs we studied protein-peptide interactions in real-time using surface plasmon resonance technology. We demonstrate the direct interaction of the XIP regulatory-peptide of NCX with calmodulin (CaM). Since CaM also binds to the Bex protein, an interacting protein partner of OMP, these observations strongly suggest that OMP can influence CaM efficacy and thus alters NCX activity by a series of protein-protein interactions.PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(1):e4260. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: α-Syntrophin is a scaffolding protein linking signaling proteins to the sarcolemmal dystrophin complex in mature muscle. However, α-syntrophin is also expressed in differentiating myoblasts during the early stages of muscle differentiation. In this study, we examined the relationship between the expression of α-syntrophin and myogenin, a key muscle regulatory factor. The absence of α-syntrophin leads to reduced and delayed myogenin expression. This conclusion is based on experiments using muscle cells isolated from α-syntrophin null mice, muscle regeneration studies in α-syntrophin null mice, experiments in Sol8 cells (a cell line that expresses only low levels of α-syntrophin) and siRNA studies in differentiating C2 cells. In primary cultured myocytes isolated from α-syntrophin null mice, the level of myogenin was less than 50% that from wild type myocytes (p<0.005) 40 h after differentiation induction. In regenerating muscle, the expression of myogenin in the α-syntrophin null muscle was reduced to approximately 25% that of wild type muscle (p<0.005). Conversely, myogenin expression is enhanced in primary cultures of myoblasts isolated from a transgenic mouse over-expressing α-syntrophin and in Sol8 cells transfected with a vector to over-express α-syntrophin. Moreover, we find that myogenin mRNA is reduced in the absence of α-syntrophin and increased by α-syntrophin over-expression. Immunofluorescence microscopy shows that α-syntrophin is localized to the nuclei of differentiating myoblasts. Finally, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that α-syntrophin associates with Mixed-Lineage Leukemia 5, a regulator of myogenin expression. We conclude that α-syntrophin plays an important role in regulating myogenesis by modulating myogenin expression.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(12):e15355. · 4.09 Impact Factor