Shear stress investigation across mechanical heart valve
School of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai, China.ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992) (Impact Factor: 1.52). 09/2007; 53(5):530-6. DOI: 10.1097/MAT.0b013e318157c093
The particle image velocimetry technique was used to study the shear field across a transparent mechanical heart valve model in one cardiac cycle. Shear stress was continuously increased until peak systole and high turbulent stress was observed at the orifice of the central channel and also around the occluder trailing tips. The peak Reynolds shear stress was up to 500 N/m at peak systole, which was higher than the normal threshold for hemolysis.
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ABSTRACT: Edge-to-edge repair (ETER) is a mitral valve repair technique that restores valvular competence by suturing together the free edges of two leaflets. This repair technique alters mitral valve inflow and thus left ventricle hemodynamics during diastole. Our objective was to investigate fluid mechanics immediately downstream of the mitral valve under ETER during diastole. Fresh porcine mitral valves of the annulus size M32 with chordae removed were installed into a steady flow loop simulating a peak diastolic inflow through the mitral valve. Digital particle image velocimetry was used to measure the velocity field immediately downstream of the mitral valve under normal and ETER conditions. First, to study the suture length effect, suture was applied in the central position of the leaflet edge with suture lengths of 3 mm, 6 mm, and 9 mm, respectively. Then, 3 mm suture was set in the central, lateral, and commissural positions of the leaflet edge to study the suture position effect. Flow rate was 15 l/min. Velocity, Reynolds shear stress (RSS), and effective orifice area were assessed. A total of five mitral valves were tested. The normal mitral valve without the ETER had one jet downstream of the valve, but the mitral valve with the central or lateral sutures under the ETER had two jets downstream of the valve with a recirculation region downstream of the suture. The maximum velocity, the maximum RSS in the jets, the pressure drop across the mitral valve, and the jet deflection angle increased with the increase in suture length in the central position. When the suture position effect was investigated with the 3 mm suture, the maximum velocity, the maximum RSS, and the pressure drop across the valve in the central suture position were greater than those of the lateral and the commissural suture positions. The lateral suture demonstrated major and minor jets with the greater maximum velocity and maximum RSS in the major jet. When the suture was in the commissural position, the flow field downstream of the mitral valve was similar to that of the normal mitral valve without the ETER. The effective orifice area was smallest when the suture was applied in the central position as compared with other suture positions. Both suture length and position have an important impact on fluid mechanics downstream of the mitral valve under the ETER in terms of flow pattern, maximum velocity, and RSS distribution. The altered hemodynamics of the mitral valve and thus of the left ventricle by the ETER may change mitral valve and left ventricle function.Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 06/2009; 131(5):051010. DOI:10.1115/1.3118772 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our group is currently developing a pneumatic ventricular assist device (PVAD). In general, the major causes of hemolysis in a pulsatile VAD are cavitation, and Reynolds shear stress (RSS) in the mechanical heart valve (MHV). In a previous study, we investigated MHV cavitation. To select the optimal bileaflet valve for our PVAD, in the current study, we investigated RSS and viscous shear stress (VSS) downstream of three different types of commercial bileaflet valves by means of 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV). To carry out flow visualization inside the blood pump and near the valve, we designed a model pump with the same configuration as that of our PVAD. Three types of bileaflet valves (i.e., the ATS valve, the St. Jude valve, and the Sorin Bicarbon valve) were mounted at the aortic position of the model pump, and flow was visualized according to the PIV method. The maximum flow velocity and RSS of the Sorin Bicarbon valve were lower than those of the other two bileaflet valves. The maximum VSS was only 1% of the maximum RSS. Thus, the effect of VSS on blood cell trauma was neglected. The Sorin Bicarbon valve exhibited relatively low levels of RSS, and was therefore considered to be the best valve for our PVAD among the three valves tested.ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992) 07/2009; 55(4):348-54. DOI:10.1097/MAT.0b013e3181a793e0 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lifelong oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy is required for the prevention of thromboembolic events after implantation of an artificial heart valve. Thromboembolism and anticoagulant-related bleedings account for approximately 75% of all complications experienced by heart valve recipients (2-9% of patients per year). The present study investigated the efficacy of dabigatran, a new direct thrombin inhibitor for oral use, as compared to unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in preventing thrombus formation on mechanical heart valves in vitro. Blood (230 ml) from healthy young male volunteers was anticoagulated either by dabigatran (1 micromol/l), UFH (150 IU), or LMWH (100 IU). Mechanical heart valve prostheses were placed in an in vitro thrombosis tester and exposed to the anticoagulated blood samples under continuous circulation at a rate of 75 beats per minute. In whole blood with no anticoagulant, the apparatus completely clotted in 15-20 minutes. When blood was treated with dabigatran, the mean thrombus weight was 164+/-55 mg, in the UFH group 159+/-69 mg, and in the LMWH group 182+/-82 mg (p-value: 0.704). Electron microscopy showed no significant difference in thrombus formation in any group. Dabigatran was as effective as UFH and LMWH in preventing thrombus formation on mechanical heart valves in our in vitro investigation. Thus, we hypothesize that dabigatran etexilate might potentially be a useful and competitive orally administered alternative to UFH and LMWH for recipients of alloplastic heart valve prostheses.Thrombosis Research 09/2010; 126(3):e196-200. DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2010.06.011 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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