Development of a Physical Education-Related State Policy Classification System (PERSPCS)

Centre for Community Child Health Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.53). 11/2007; 33(4 Suppl):S264-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2007.07.019
Source: PubMed


As policy-based approaches are increasingly proposed to address childhood obesity, this paper seeks to: (1) present the development of a system to systematically and reliably assess the nature and extent of state physical education (PE) and recess-related policies; (2) determine the inter-rater agreement in using the system; and (3) report on the variability in state policies using a December 31, 2003 baseline.
The PE and Recess State Policy Classification System (PERSPCS) was developed from a conceptual framework and was informed by reviewing the scientific and gray literatures and through consultations with an expert panel and key experts. Statutes and regulations enacted as of December 31, 2003 were retrieved from Westlaw (data retrieved and analyzed in 2004-2005).
PERSPCS addresses five areas: PE time requirements, staffing requirements for PE, curriculum standards for PE, assessment of health-related fitness, and recess time (elementary schools only). The inter-rater agreement ranged from 0.876 (PE staffing requirements) to perfect agreement (recess time). Staffing requirements had more restrictive policies, followed in decreasing order by time requirements, curriculum standards, assessment, and recess time. Overall, state policies met minimal requirements across areas and grade levels as of December 2003.
Extending PERSPCS to address other aspects of childhood obesity is a critical first step in understanding the range of state policy approaches in this area and their impact. PERSPCS should be examined in conjunction with school district-level policies to determine the overall effects of policies on school environmental and behavioral outcomes. PERSPCS is not designed to set policy guidelines.

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    • "C.L.A.S.S., see Masse et al. (2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe variation in U.S. state elementary school physical education (PE) policies and to assess associations between state PE policy enactment and education funding, academic achievement, sociodemographic disadvantage, and political characteristics. Methods: U.S. state laws regarding school PE time, staffing, curriculum, fitness assessment, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 2012 were classified as strong/specific, weak/nonspecific, or none based on codified law ratings within the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (C.L.A.S.S.). Laws were merged with state-level data from multiple sources. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between state characteristics and PE laws (N=51). Results: Laws with specific PE and MVPA time requirements and evidence-based curriculum standards were more likely in states with low academic performance and in states with sociodemographically disadvantaged populations. School day length was positively associated with enacting a PE curriculum that referenced evidence-based standards. School funding and political characteristics were not associated with PE laws. Conclusions: Limited time and high-stake testing requirements force schools to prioritize academic programs, posing barriers to state passage of specific PE laws. To facilitate PE policy enactment, it may be necessary to provide evidence on how PE policies can be implemented within existing time and staffing structures.
    Preventive Medicine 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.09.006 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "This is the first comprehensive review of nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care facilities, and further exploration is needed. Recently, researchers have attempted to classify and categorize state level policy related to physical education and nutrition services in school settings [85,86], but the researchers did not extend the scope of their work to include state regulations governing child-care facilities. A logical next step would be to conduct a similar study classifying obesity regulations for child care facilities in the United States. "
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    ABSTRACT: To describe and contrast individual state nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care centers and family child care homes in the United States. We conducted a review of regulations for child care facilities for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We examined state regulations and recorded key nutrition and physical activity items that may contribute to childhood obesity. Items included in this review were: 1) Water is freely available; 2) Sugar-sweetened beverages are limited; 3) Foods of low nutritional value are limited; 4) Children are not forced to eat; 5) Food is not used as a reward; 6) Support is provided for breastfeeding and provision of breast milk; 7) Screen time is limited; and 8) Physical activity is required daily. Considerable variation exists among state nutrition and physical activity regulations related to obesity. Tennessee had six of the eight regulations for child care centers, and Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, and Nevada had five of the eight regulations. Conversely, the District of Columbia, Idaho, Nebraska and Washington had none of the eight regulations. For family child care homes, Georgia and Nevada had five of the eight regulations; Arizona, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, and West Virginia had four of the eight regulations. California, the District of Columbia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska did not have any of the regulations related to obesity for family child care homes. Many states lack specific nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care facilities. If widely implemented, enhancing state regulations could help address the obesity epidemic in young children in the United States.
    BMC Public Health 02/2008; 8(1):188. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-8-188 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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