Salvage reconstruction of extensive recurrent oral cancer defects with the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of oral and facial defects after excision of recurrent oral cancer and the results of salvage surgery.
Twenty-four patients with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity underwent salvage surgical treatment. Pectoralis major flaps were used for reconstruction of the extensive defects caused by excision of the tumors. The complications of the flap and the prognosis of the patients were analyzed with a follow-up from 5 to 65 months (mean = 18.5 months).
Fourteen flaps were used for mucosal lining of the mouth, and 10 flaps were used for reconstruction of the cutaneous defects. The overall success rate of the flap was 70.8%. Flap-related complications developed in 13 patients (54.2%). Major complications occurred in 7 patients (29.2%), and minor complications occurred in 6 (25.0%). Three patients (12.5%) had complications unrelated to the flap. The reconstruction of the base of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the oropharynx emerged as a significant risk factor for flap necrosis on binary logistic regression analysis (P < .05). The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rate was 72.8%, 30.9%, and 20.6%, respectively.
The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap is a reliable choice for reconstruction of extensive soft tissue defects caused by excision of recurrent oral cancer. The major complications correlate with the site of reconstruction. Many patients benefit from salvage surgery, and some of them can survive 2 to 4 years postoperatively.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the rates and the sites of tumour recurrence in patients with oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas. This is a retrospective study of a series of cases treated in a single institution. A series of 2067 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma, treated from 1954 to 1998 were analysed. The treatment approach was: surgery, 624 cases (30.2%); radiotherapy alone, 729 cases (35.3%); radiotherapy and surgery, 552 cases (26.7%) and radiotherapy and chemotherapy, 162 cases (7.8%). Tumour recurrence was observed in 1079 patients (52.2%): 561 cases of local recurrences (27.1%); 168 neck recurrences (8.1%); 252 locoregional recurrences (12.2%); 59, distant metastasis (2.9%) and 39 (1.9%), combination of distant metastasis with local, neck or locoregional recurrence. The rates of recurrence varied significantly according to the treatment performed. Oral cavity cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy presented the highest rates of neck recurrences (22.5 and 40.0%, respectively) for clinical stage (CS) I/II and of local (41.2 and 30.1%) and locoregional (21.7 and 31.1%) recurrences for CS III/IV; yet, for CS III/IV, surgery without neck dissection was associated with the highest rates of neck recurrences (20.7%), but no differences were observed in the rates of local or locoregional recurrences for CS I/II patients. For oropharynx cancer patients with CS I/II there was no difference in the rate of locoregional failures according to the treatment. However, patients with CS III/IV undergoing radiotherapy present a highest rate of local (42.3%) and locoregional (28.8%) failures. The results suggest that surgery should be the first option for initial clinical stage oral and oropharyngeal cancers. For advanced cases independently of the site of the tumour, surgery and postoperative radiotherapy should be the standard of care because it is associated with the lowest rates of locoregional recurrence.Oral Diseases 06/2003; 9(3):112-8. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The study reported the results of treatment for base of tongue cancer with five different treatment modalities with long-term follow-up. This was a retrospective study of 262 patients with base of tongue cancer treated in the Departments of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Radiation Therapy at Washington University School of Medicine (St. Louis, MO) from July 1955 to January 1998. The study population included previously untreated patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue who were treated with curative intent by one of five modalities and were all eligible for 5-year follow-up. The treatment modalities included local resection alone, composite resection alone, radiation therapy alone, local resection with radiation therapy, and composite resection with radiation therapy. Multiple diagnostic, treatment, and follow-up parameters were studied using standard statistical analysis to determine statistical significance. The overall 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 49.6% with death due to tumor in 50.4%. The 5-year cumulative disease-specific survival probability (CDSS) was 0.526 (Kaplan-Meier) with a mean of 7.8 years and a median of 5.6 years. Patients with early disease had significantly improved DSS compared with patients with more advanced disease (stages I and II; TN stages T1N0, T2N0, and T2N1; and T stages T1 and T2.). Patients with N0 had better DSS than patients with positive lymph nodes (P =.010). The DSS for all stages by treatment modality included local resection (70.0%), composite resection (47.6%), radiation therapy (40.4%), local resection and radiation therapy (50.0%), and composite resection with radiation therapy (51.5%). Overall and within the stages there was no significant difference in either DSS or CDSS by treatment modality. Local-regional recurrence occurred in 26% of patients, and overall salvage was 10.5%. Patients with clear resection margins did better than patients with close or involved margins (DSS and CDSS). Patients treated with radiation therapy alone had improved capacity to swallow (P =.001), speak (P =.01), and work (P =.001) compared with patients treated with the other modalities. Cancer of the base of tongue is a lethal disease, and its treatment results in significant disability. No treatment produced a significantly improved survival advantage. Focus on improving local-regional control might improve overall survival. All treatment modalities were associated with major treatment-related complications. Radiation alone produced significantly improved post-treatment function and quality of life compared with the other modalities. Because of the recurrence rates at the primary and neck sites and the high rates of development of distant metastasis and second primary cancers, patients should be monitored for a minimum of at least 4 years.The Laryngoscope 08/2003; 113(7):1252-61. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our experience with 224 immediate pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstructions in patients with carcinomas of the oral and oropharyngeal cavities is presented. Although flap-related complications developed in 53% of the patients, all flaps survived, and we had no major skin paddle loss. The incidence of reoperation due to flap-related complications was 2%. All other complications were minor and did not affect the length of hospitalization. Analysis showed no significant risk factors for the development of complications. Because of fistula formation, infection, or metal exposure, plate removal was necessary in 10% of the AO fixation plates used in cases of mandibular swing. This occurred in 68% of the anterior and 22% of the lateral mandibular reconstructions performed with a reconstruction plate (P < 0.05). We conclude that a reconstruction plate is unsatisfactory for anterior mandibular continuity reconstruction and debatable for lateral mandibular reconstruction. At present, anterior defects are reconstructed with free vascularized osteocutaneous flaps that should probably also be used for lateral mandibular reconstruction. Furthermore, in a large number of series, it is reported that free flaps also have high complication rates and 5-10% flap loss. As all pectoralis major flaps survived in our series, it still remains a good choice in intraoral and oropharyngeal reconstruction when there is no necessity to reconstruct bone.The American Journal of Surgery 10/1996; 172(3):259-62. · 2.52 Impact Factor