Protective effect of phlorotannin components phloroglucinol and eckol on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.
ABSTRACT Components of phlorotannin, which were extracted from Ecklonia species, have been reported to have in vitro radioprotective and antioxidative effects. The radioprotective effects of two of the components of phlorotannin, phloroglucinol and eckol, in intestinal stem cells were examined by evaluating their effects on jejunal crypt survival and apoptosis in gamma-irradiated mice. Pretreating the mice (i.p. 20 mg/kg of body weight at 12 and 36 h before irradiation) prior to irradiation with either phloroglucinol or eckol significantly improved the survival of the jejunal crypt (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01 vs irradiation controls at 3.5 days after 8 Gy irradiation, respectively). The administration of phloroglucinol and eckol prior to irradiation protected the intestinal crypts from radiation-induced apoptosis (p < 0.05 vs irradiation controls at 12 h after 1 Gy irradiation). Although the mechanism for this inhibitory effect remains unknown, these results showed that phloroglucinol and eckol might be useful radioprotectors that can defend intestinal stem cells against the oxidative damage caused by gamma-irradiation.
Article: The radioprotective effects of the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Callophyllis japonica in mice that undergo whole body irradiation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The radioprotective activity of extracts from the red seaweed Callophyllis (C.) japonica was investigated in mice that underwent whole-body exposure to gamma radiation. A methanol extract of C. japonica and its fractions [hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol and the remaining H2O] were used. Each fraction (100 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) 2 times into the BALB/c mice, once at 1 and once at 24 h before exposure to 9 Gray (Gy) of gamma radiation. Pre-irradiation administration of the hexane and EtOAc fractions saved the mice, with their survival rates being greater than 80% at 30 days post-irradiation; the mice that were pretreated with the other fractions showed survival rates lower than 20% over the same time period. To examine the effect of each C. japonica fraction on the survival of intestinal and bone marrow stem cells, the number of intestinal crypts and bone marrow cells in the gamma-irradiated mice were examined. Pre-treatment of mice (i.p., 100 mg/kg body weight at 1 and 24 h before irradiation) with the hexane or EtOAc fraction prior to 6-Gy irradiation significantly protected the number of jejunal crypts and bone marrow cells at 9 days after irradiation. These findings suggest that certain extracts from C. japonica, when they are administered prior to irradiation, play an important role in the survival of irradiated mice, and this is possibly due to the extracts protecting the hematopoietic cells and intestinal stem cells against gamma irradiation.Journal of Veterinary Science 10/2008; 9(3):281-4. · 1.16 Impact Factor
Article: Can phlorotannins purified extracts constitute a novel pharmacological alternative for microbial infections with associated inflammatory conditions?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bacterial and fungal infections and the emerging multidrug resistance are driving interest in fighting these microorganisms with natural products, which have generally been considered complementary to pharmacological therapies. Phlorotannins are polyphenols restricted to brown seaweeds, recognized for their biological capacity. This study represents the first research on the antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of phlorotannins purified extracts, which were obtained from ten dominant brown seaweeds of the occidental Portuguese coast.Phlorotannins content was determined by the specific dimethoxybenzaldehyde (DMBA) method and a yield between 75 and 969 mg/Kg phloroglucinol units (dry matter) was obtained. Fucus spiralis ranked first, followed by three Cystoseira species. The anti-inflammatory potential of the purified extracts was assessed via inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, Cystoseira tamariscifolia being the one showing promising activity for the treatment of inflammation. NO scavenging ability was also addressed in cell free systems, F. spiralis being the species with highest capacity. The antimicrobial potential of the extracts was checked against five Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria and three fungi strains, that commonly colonize skin and mucosa and are responsible for food contamination. The different extracts were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis being the most susceptible species. Concerning antifungal activity, Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive species.Although the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood, the results obtained turn phlorotannins purified extracts a novel and potent pharmacological alternative for the treatment of a wide range of microbial infections, which usually also present an inflammatory component. In addition to the biological properties demonstrated herein, phlorotannins extracts may also be preferred, in order to avoid side effects and allergic reactions commonly associated with synthetic drugs.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e31145. · 4.09 Impact Factor