Isolation of Zn2+ as an endogenous agonist of GPR39 from fetal bovine serum.
ABSTRACT We attempted to determine natural agonists of GPR39 in fetal bovine serum (FBS). FBS was conditioned to extract peptides and fractionated by two types of HPLC. The activity of each fraction was monitored by intracellular calcium mobilization. Then the purified active ingredient was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In this fashion, Zn2+ ion was identified as an agonist of GPR39, though no peptidergic molecules were found. The calcium-mobilizing activity of Zn2+ was not abolished by pertussis toxin but was by a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, U73122, indicating that the activity of GPR39 is mediated through the Gqalpha -PLC pathway. In addition, Zn2+ also activated mouse and rat GPR39, showing that the function of GPR39 as a Zn2+ receptor is conserved across species. This study is the first exploration of GPR39 agonists in FBS and indicates that GPR39 functions as a Gq-coupled Zn2+-sensing receptor.
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ABSTRACT: Zinc enhances epithelial proliferation, protects the digestive epithelial layer and has profound antiulcerative and antidiarrheal roles in the colon. Despite the clinical significance of this ion, the mechanisms linking zinc to these cellular processes are poorly understood. We have previously identified an extracellular Zn(2+) sensing G-protein coupled receptor (ZnR) that activates Ca(2+) signaling in colonocytes, but its molecular identity as well as its effects on colonocytes' survival remained elusive. Here, we show that Zn(2+), by activation of the ZnR, protects HT29 colonocytes from butyrate induced cell death. Silencing of the G-protein coupled receptor GPR39 expression abolished ZnR-dependent Ca(2+) release and Zn(2+)-dependent survival of butyrate-treated colonocytes. Importantly, GPR39 also mediated ZnR-dependent upregulation of Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity as this activity was found in native colon tissue but not in tissue obtained from GPR39 knock-out mice. Although ZnR-dependent upregulation of Na(+)/H(+) exchange reduced the cellular acid load induced by butyrate, it did not rescue HT29 cells from butyrate induced cell death. ZnR/GPR39 activation however, increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein clusterin in butyrate-treated cells. Furthermore, silencing of clusterin abolished the Zn(2+)-dependent survival of HT29 cells. Altogether, our results demonstrate that extracellular Zn(2+), acting through ZnR, regulates intracellular pH and clusterin expression thereby enhancing survival of HT29 colonocytes. Moreover, we identify GPR39 as the molecular moiety of ZnR in HT29 and native colonocytes.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35482. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During the last decade it has been shown that zinc may activate neural transmissions via the GPR39 Zn(2+-)sensing receptor, which can be involved in the regulation of neuronal plasticity. According to the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression, decreased brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in depressed patients plays a key role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. BDNF, similarly as zinc, is known to be involved in the process of neuron survival and the regulation of neuronal plasticity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of a 6-week diet deficient in zinc would cause depressive-like behaviour and if such behavioural alterations would correlate with changes in the expression of the BDNF protein and GPR39 receptor. In the first part of the present study the animal behaviour after a 6-week zinc-deficient diet, in the forced swim test (FST) was investigated. In the second part expression of the GPR39 and BDNF protein level in the frontal cortex was measured using the Western Blot method. Administration of a zinc-deficient diet for 6 weeks increased immobility time in the FST by 24%, so exerted depression-like behaviour. A biochemical study showed a significant reduction in GPR39 (by 53%) and BDNF (by 49%) protein expression in the frontal cortex in mice receiving the zinc deficient diet for 6 weeks. Our study provides evidence that the GPR39 Zn(2+-)sensing receptor may be responsible for lowering the BDNF protein level and in consequence may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression.Behavioural brain research 10/2012; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: GPR39 is a vertebrate G protein-coupled receptor related to the ghrelin/neurotensin receptor subfamily. The receptor is expressed in a range of tissues including the pancreas, gut/gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney and in some regions of the brain. GPR39 was initially thought to be the cognitive receptor for the peptide hormone, obestatin. However, subsequent in vitro studies have failed to demonstrate binding of this peptide to the receptor. Zn2+ has been shown to be a potent stimulator of GPR39 activity via the Gαq, Gα12/13 and Gαs pathways. The potency and specificity of Zn2+ in activating GPR39 suggest it to be a physiologically important agonist. GPR39 is now emerging as an important transducer of autocrine and paracrine Zn2+ signals, impacting upon cellular processes such as insulin secretion, gastric emptying, neurotransmission and epithelial repair. This review focuses on the molecular, structural and biological properties of GPR39 and its various physiological functions. KeywordsCell signaling–Diabetes–Epithelial repair–Gastrointestinal tract–GPCR–Phospholipase C–Zinc receptorCellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 04/2012; 68(1):85-95. · 5.62 Impact Factor