Pulmonary hypertension in peritoneal dialysis patients.
ABSTRACT The information available in the literature regarding pulmonary hypertension (PH) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is limited. The objective of the present study was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of PH in PD patients. We retrospectively collected the clinical profile, echocardiographic (ECHO) findings, and biochemical data for 36 PD patients for which ECHO findings were available. We compared characteristics between patients with and without PH. We found PH, defined as pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) > or = 35 mmHg, in 15 patients. The prevalence of PH was 42%. Mean age (+/- standard deviation) of the patients with and without PH was 58 +/- 15 years and 52 +/- 15 years respectively (p = 0.30). Mean PAP of the PH patients was 43.8 +/- 9.0 mmHg (range: 35-65 mmHg). Patients with PH had a lower ejection fraction than did patients without PH (46.3% +/- 19.8% vs. 56.5% +/- 11.8% respectively, p = 0.07). Patients with PH also had a higher prevalence of global hypokinesia (60% vs. 29%, p = 0. 059) and dilated left ventricular chamber (53% vs. 19%, p = 0.03). In PH patients, body mass index (24 +/- 4.5 kg/m2 vs. 28 +/- 5.0 kg/m2, p = 0.024), normalized protein catabolic rate (0. 78 +/- 0.21 g/kg vs. 0.95 +/- 0.27 g/kg daily, p = 0.049), and ferritin (226 +/- 210 ng/mL vs. 873 +/- 965 ng/mL, p = 0.005) were significantly lower and lactate dehydrogenase was higher (264 +/- 99 U/L vs. 206 +/- 79 U/L, p = 0.06) than in patients without PH. We observed no significant differences in race or sex, incidence of hypertension or cardiovascular disease, or vitamin D analog use between the two groups of patients. During the study period, 60% of PH patients and 38% of patients without PH died (p = 0.19). Values of PAP correlated directly with serum levels of phosphorus (r = 0.44, p = 0.02), CaxP product (r = 0.40, p = 0.04), and parathyroid hormone (r = 0.42, p = 0.03). Of continuous ambulatory PD and continuous cycling PD patients, 21% and 55% respectively had PH (p = 0. 049). In PD patients, PH is highly prevalent and may be associated with higher mortality risk.
Article: Pulmonary Hypertension in CKD.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare disease often associated with positive antinuclear antibody and high mortality. Pulmonary hypertension, which rarely is severe, occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension ranges from 9%-39% in individuals with stage 5 CKD, 18.8%-68.8% in hemodialysis patients, and 0%-42% in patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy. No epidemiologic data are available yet for earlier stages of CKD. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD may be induced and/or aggravated by left ventricular disorders and risk factors typical of CKD, including volume overload, an arteriovenous fistula, sleep-disordered breathing, exposure to dialysis membranes, endothelial dysfunction, vascular calcification and stiffening, and severe anemia. No specific intervention trial aimed at reducing pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD has been performed to date. Correcting volume overload and treating left ventricular disorders are factors of paramount importance for relieving pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD. Preventing pulmonary hypertension in this population is crucial because even kidney transplantation may not reverse the high mortality associated with established pulmonary hypertension.American Journal of Kidney Diseases 11/2012; · 5.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction. Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is an independent predictor of mortality. The aim of this study was to relate pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) to the cardiovascular status of dialysis patients. Methods. 27 peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 29 haemodialysis (HD) patients (60 ± 13 years, 37 males, dialysis vintage was 40 ± 48 months) had PAP measured by echocardiography. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients were recorded. Results. PHT (PAP > 35 mmHg) was detected in 22 patients (39%; PAP 42 ± 6 mmHg) and was diagnosed in 18.5% of PD patients and 58.6% of HD patients (P = .0021). The group of subjects with PH had higher dialysis vintage (63 ± 60 versus 27 ± 32 months, P = .016), interdialytic weight gain (2.1 ± 1 versus 1.3 ± 0.9 Kg, P = .016), lower diastolic blood pressure (73 ± 12 versus 80 ± 8 mmHg, P = .01) and ejection fraction (54 ± 13 versus 60 ± 7%, P = .021) than the patients with normal PAP. PAP was correlated positively with diastolic left ventricular volume (r = 0.32, P = .013) and negatively with ejection fraction (r = -0.54, P < .0001). PHT was independently associated with dialysis vintage (OR 1.022, 95% CI 1.002-1.041, P = .029) and diastolic blood pressure (OR 0.861, 95% CI 0.766-0.967, P = .011). Conclusions. PHT is frequent in dialysis patients, it appears to be a late complication of HD treatment, mainly related to cardiac performance and cardiovascular disease history.International journal of nephrology. 01/2011; 2011:283475.
Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis, Vol. 23, 2007
The information available in the literature regarding
pulmonary hypertension (PH) in peritoneal dialysis
(PD) patients is limited. The objective of the present
study was to examine the prevalence and character-
istics of PH in PD patients.
We retrospectively collected the clinical profile,
echocardiographic (ECHO) findings, and biochemi-
cal data for 36 PD patients for which ECHO findings
were available. We compared characteristics between
patients with and without PH. We found PH, defined
as pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) ≥ 35 mmHg, in
15 patients. The prevalence of PH was 42%. Mean
age (± standard deviation) of the patients with and
without PH was 58 ± 15 years and 52 ± 15 years re-
spectively (p = 0.30). Mean PAP of the PH patients
was 43.8 ± 9.0 mmHg (range: 35 – 65 mmHg).
Patients with PH had a lower ejection fraction
than did patients without PH (46.3% ± 19.8% vs.
56.5% ± 11.8% respectively, p = 0.07). Patients with
PH also had a higher prevalence of global hypoki-
nesia (60% vs. 29%, p = 0.059) and dilated left ven-
tricular chamber (53% vs. 19%, p = 0.03). In PH
patients, body mass index (24 ± 4.5 kg/m2 vs. 28 ±
5.0 kg/m2, p = 0.024), normalized protein catabolic
rate (0.78 ± 0.21 g/kg vs. 0.95±0.27 g/kg daily, p =
0.049), and ferritin (226 ± 210 ng/mL vs. 873 ±
965 ng/mL, p = 0.005) were significantly lower and
lactate dehydrogenase was higher (264 ± 99 U/L vs.
206 ± 79 U/L, p = 0.06) than in patients without PH.
We observed no significant differences in race or sex,
incidence of hypertension or cardiovascular disease,
or vitamin D analog use between the two groups of
patients. During the study period, 60% of PH patients
and 38% of patients without PH died (p = 0.19).
Values of PAP correlated directly with serum levels
of phosphorus (r = 0.44, p = 0.02), Ca×P product
(r = 0.40, p = 0.04), and parathyroid hormone (r =
0.42, p = 0.03). Of continuous ambulatory PD and
continuous cycling PD patients, 21% and 55% re-
spectively had PH (p = 0.049). In PD patients, PH
Pulmonary Hypertension in
Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
Lalathaksha Kumbar, Paul A. Fein, Muhammad A. Rafiq,
Cezary Borawski, Jyotiprakas Chattopadhyay, Morrell M.
is highly prevalent and may be associated with higher
Pulmonary hypertension, parathyroid hormone, PTH,
pulmonary arterial pressure, mortality
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is increasingly being
recognized as a factor that can affect outcome in end-
stage renal disease (ESRD). Most cases of PH are
consequent to myocardial or pulmonary diseases.
Chronic left ventricular failure and the resulting el-
evation in pulmonary venous pressure is the most
common cause of PH. In several populations without
chronic kidney disease (CKD), PH has been associ-
ated with excess mortality (1–3). A high prevalence
of PH in CKD patients on hemodialysis (HD) has re-
cently been reported (4–7). In a retrospective study
(8), we reported PH in 64% of HD patients who un-
derwent echocardiography (ECHO) for any reason
within the preceding 12 months (36% of our entire
HD population, reflecting the minimum prevalence).
End-stage renal disease commonly occurs with
significant comorbidities, several of which may lead
to PH. Left-side heart disease, chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, collagen vascular
diseases, HIV infection, and portal hypertension may
coexist and result in PH. Most HD patients have an
arteriovenous (AV) hemoaccess that results in AV
shunting and potentially in PH. In addition, second-
ary hyperparathyroidism, elevated Ca×P product, and
vascular calcification are commonly seen in CKD
In an animal model, Akmal et al. showed that ex-
cess parathyroid hormone (PTH) in chronic renal fail-
ure induces pulmonary calcification, PH, and right
ventricular hypertrophy (11). Recently, we reported
the prevalence and clinical characteristics of PH in
CKD patients before initiation of renal replacement
The information available in the literature regard-
ing PH in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD)
From: Avram Division of Nephrology, Long Island College
Hospital, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A.
128 Kumbar et al.
is limited (4). The objective of the present study was
therefore to examine the prevalence, clinical profile,
and echocardiography characteristics of PH in PD
patients and to identify the biochemical markers as-
sociated with PH in PD patients.
Patients and methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of
80 PD patients treated at the Avram Center for Kid-
ney Diseases (the outpatient facility at Long Island
College Hospital) between 2002 and 2005. Of these
patients, 36 had undergone ECHO.
On patient enrollment into the study, we collected
demographic data (including age, race, and sex) and
clinical data (including body weight, body mass in-
dex, presence of diabetes and hypertension, known
cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, medication his-
tory, and tobacco and alcohol use). Biochemical
parameters and ECHO findings were collected for
each patient. Laboratory data nearest to the patient’s
ECHO study were included in the analysis. We de-
fined PH as a systolic pulmonary artery pressure
(PAP) ≥ 35 mmHg (4). For 8 patients whose PAP
was not recorded, we presumed a lack of PH.
We compared characteristics between patients
with and without PH. The Institutional Review
Board of Long Island College Hospital approved
the study protocol.
Continuous variables are reported as mean ± standard
deviation. For selected comparisons between two
group means, the parametric (t-test) or nonparamet-
ric (Mann–Whitney test) was used, as applicable.
Categorical variables were compared using the chi-
square test or the Fisher exact test, as appropriate.
Correlations were reported either as Pearson correla-
tion coefficients or Spearman rank correlation coeffi-
cients. Calculations were performed using SPSS
12.0.1 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. U.S.A.).
Of the 36 PD patients, 15 had PH, a prevalence of
42%. For the groups without and with PH, we ob-
served no differences in age (52 ± 15 years vs. 58 ±
15 years, p = 0.30), sex (women: 62% vs. 53%), race
(African American: 71% vs. 73%), or cause of CKD.
Table I compares the clinical characteristics of
patients without and with PH. Surprisingly, the patients
without PH had a higher prevalence of diabetes (57%
vs. 20%, p = 0.04) and peripheral vascular disease
(29% vs. 0%, p = 0.03). Patients with PH had higher
prevalences of congestive heart failure (CHF: 13%
vs. 0%; p = 0.08) and coronary artery disease (CAD:
40% vs. 14%; p = 0.08). The percentage of smokers
was higher among PH patients than among those with-
out PH (53% vs. 24%, p = 0.07). During the study
period, 60% of the PH patients and 38% of the pa-
tients without PH died (p = 0.31), highlighting the
risk accompanying PH is this population.
Table II shows biochemical parameters for pa-
tients without and with PH. Patients with PH had a
significantly lower normalized protein catabolic rate
(0.78 g/kg vs. 0.95 g/kg, p = 0.049), significantly
lower ferritin (227 ng/mL vs. 873 ng/mL, p = 0.008),
and higher lactic dehydrogenase (LDH: 264 U/L vs.
206 U/L; p = 0.06).
Values of PAP were not normally distributed in
PD patients. Mean and median PAP were 37.4 ±
9.96 mmHg and 35 mmHg overall, with a range of
25 – 65 mmHg. Among PH patients, mean PAP was
43.8 ± 9.0 mmHg (range: 35 – 65 mmHg). Values
of PAP correlated positively with serum levels of
phosphorus (r = 0.44, p = 0.02), Ca×P product (r =
0.40, p = 0.04), and parathyroid hormone (PTH:
r = 0.42, p = 0.03; Figure 1), and negatively with
serum ferritin (r = –0.46, p = 0.016).
Table III shows the ECHO characteristics of the
patients without and with PH. Although the p value
did not quite reach significance, patients with PH had
a lower left ventricular ejection fraction than did pa-
tients without PH (46.3% vs. 56.5%, p = 0.07). As
compared with patients without PH, patients with PH
had significantly greater prevalence of dilated left
chamber (53% vs. 19%, p = 0.03) and global hypokin-
esia (60% vs. 29%, p = 0.059).
We also compared the history of medications and
dialysis modality use between the two groups of PD
patients. As expected, because of a higher prevalence
of diabetes, patients without PH were more likely to
be taking insulin (p = 0.01). We observed no signifi-
cant difference between the two groups of PD patients
with regard to treatment with erythropoietin, vitamin
D analogs, phosphate binders, angiotensin convert-
ing-enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, and calcium
channel blockers. Of continuous ambulatory PD pa-
tients and continuous cycling PD patients, 21% and
55% respectively had PH (p = 0.049).
Pulmonary Hypertension in PD 129
The results of the present study indicate a very high
prevalence of PH (42%) on ECHO in our popula-
tion of PD patients having undergone ECHO for
To our knowledge, no previous reports regard-
ing the prevalence of PH in PD patients have been
published. In a report concerning 3790 ECHO-nor-
mal subjects, 28% had a systolic PAP greater than
30 mmHg (13). The recently published literature con-
tains a few papers regarding PH in HD patients. Yigla
et al. (4) indicated that 39.7% of their HD patients
had PH (PAP > 35 mmHg). Amin et al. reported a
PH prevalence of 29% in HD patients (5), and most
recently, Tarass reported 27% (7). We recently re-
ported 75% PH prevalence in our pre-dialysis CKD
patients (12), which may in fact reflect pre-existing
disease in PD patients.
In the present study of PD patients, only 1 patient
had a PAP of 65 mmHg—just short of being termed
“severe” PH (PAP > 65 mmHg). In our previously
reported pre-dialysis CKD patients (12), 3 (12.5%)
had severe PH. Our prevalent HD patients have severe
PH prevalence of about 4% [6 of 151 patients by
ECHO (8)]. Yigla et al. reported severe PH in 28% of
the non-ESRD patient population (14).
The lower ferritin levels, higher levels of LDH,
lower normalized protein catabolic rate, and higher
prevalence of CHF and CAD in our PD patients with
PH may contribute to their increased mortality risk.
Reports have indicated that PH is prevalent in adult
patients with sickle cell disease and is strongly asso-
ciated with early mortality and markers of hemolysis,
in particular serum LDH (15). We previously reported
increased mortality risk in HD patients with PH as
compared with patients without PH (8), finding that
Clinical characteristics of peritoneal dialysis patients without and with pulmonary hypertension (PH)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
Coronary artery disease (%)
Congestive heart failure (%)
Peripheral vascular disease (%)
Residual GFR (mL/min)
Residual renal function (%)
GFR = glomerular filtration rate.
Biochemical parameters of peritoneal dialysis patients without and with pulmonary hypertension (PH)
Parathyroid hormone (pg/mL)
Transferrin saturation (%)
Lactic dehydrogenase (U/L)
Daily nPCR (g/kg)
nPCR = normalized protein catabolic rate.
130 Kumbar et al.
21% of PH patients and 11% of patients without PH
died during the study period. Yigla et al. reported 30%
and 8.5% mortality rates in patients with and without
PH respectively (4). In the present study, however,
the difference in mortality between the two groups of
PD patients did not reach statistical significance. We
could not explain the higher prevalence of PH among
continuous cycling PD patients; that finding needs
Our finding that PTH correlates directly with PAP
in PD patients is interesting. Based on an animal
model, Akmal et al. suggested that excess PTH in
chronic renal failure induces PH, pulmonary calcifi-
cation, and right ventricular hypertrophy, and proposed
that PH develops secondarily to pulmonary artery
calcification. Prevention of pulmonary artery
calcification by parathyroidectomy in dogs with CRF
was associated with normalization of mean PAP and
reduction of right ventricular hypertrophy (11). But
Amin et al. could not find any statistically significant
difference in PTH between 15 patients with PH and
36 patients without PH who were on HD (5).
The present study demonstrates that PH is highly
prevalent in PD patients and may be associated with
higher mortality risk. The PH in our patients prob-
ably reflects a complication of left-chamber heart dis-
ease. The association of hyperparathyroidism with PH
in PD patients is consistent with our findings in preva-
lent HD patients (8). This link needs to be confirmed
and prospectively explored, especially given the
prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, the
large number of PD patients with PH, and the excess
mortality risk seen with PH in this population. Early
diagnosis may enable timely intervention. Consider-
ing the limitations of our small number of patients in
a retrospective study, these findings need to be fur-
ther explored in larger prospective studies.
The present work was supported in part by grants from
the Kidney Urology Foundation of America and the
Nephrology Foundation of Brooklyn.
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Right ventricular dilatation (%)
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Paul A. Fein, MD, Avram Division of Nephrology, The
Long Island College Hospital, 339 Hicks Street,
Brooklyn, New York 11201 U.S.A.