Measurement of dynamic mobilization of trace metals in sediments using DGT and comparison with bioaccumulation in Chironomus riparius: first results of an experimental study.
ABSTRACT Sediments in aquatic ecosystems are often contaminated as a result of anthropogenic activities. Sediments and benthic organisms have been used to monitor trace metals contamination. However, due to the high variability of contaminant bioavailability, the attempt to link metal concentration in sediments and contamination of the organisms or ecotoxicological effect often lead to disappointing results. The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has been proposed as a relevant tool to study metal bioavailability, for example for accumulation in plants. In the present study, laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted with six contaminated sediments to compare metal accumulation in DGT and bioaccumulation in a chironomid (Chironomus riparius) for Cu, Cd and Pb . Metal accumulation in DGT was measured over time then modelled to determine two parameters of the dynamic response of the metals to DGT deployment: the size of the particulate labile pool and the kinetic of the solid-dissolved phase exchange. The mobility of metals was found metal and sediment dependent. A significant relationship between metal accumulated in DGT and bioaccumulated in chironomids was found for Cu and Pb. However, total metals in sediments were the best predictors of bioaccumulation. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the metals dynamic enhanced our ability to explain the different biological uptake observed in sediments of similar total metal concentrations.
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ABSTRACT: Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae) in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), alpha (EST-alpha) and beta (EST-beta) esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-alpha and EST-beta activities declined by 66,40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 mu g L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 mu g L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-alpha activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 mu g L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 10/2014; 58(3):296-301. DOI:10.1590/S0085-56262014000300012 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The technique of DGT (diffusive gradients in thin films) using three diffusive gel thicknesses was applied to estimate the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in sediments and porewater of Lake Taihu, China. The DGT results showed significantly positive correlations between Co, Pb, Cd and Mn, and Ni and Fe concentrations in porewater. Cu and Zn showed a significantly negative correlation with Mn, due to Cu combination with carbonates and Zn derived from agricultural pollution, respectively. The rank order of average concentrations of Co, Ni and Cd at each station was DGT1.92>DGT0.78>DGT0.39, suggesting stronger resupply from sediments to porewater when using thicker diffusive gels. Comparing centrifugation and DGT measurements, Co, Ni and Cd are highly labile; Mn and Fe are moderately labile; and Cu, Zn and Pb are slightly labile. The variations of AVS concentrations in sediment cores indicate that metal sulfides in deeper layers are easily diffused into surface sediments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Journal of Environmental Sciences 03/2015; 31. DOI:10.1016/j.jes.2014.12.003 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Laboratory studies have sometimes failed to detect a relationship between toxic stress and morphological defects in invertebrates. Several hypotheses have been proposed to account for this lack of effect. (1) It was suggested that only a combination of stressful conditions – rather than a single one – would affect the phenotype. (2) Phenotypic defects should be detected on adult individuals, rather than on juveniles. (3) Phenotypic abnormalities might mostly affect the progeny of the exposed individuals, some contaminants exhibiting trans-generational effects. In the present study, we test those three hypotheses. We first examined the effects of a multiple exposure by using laboratory Chironomus riparius larvae cultured on two sediments sampled in contaminated rivers and those containing a mixture of mineral and organic compounds. On the larvae, we investigated mentum phenotypes: the frequency of phenodeviants, the shape fluctuating asymmetry and the mean shape. To test whether adult's morphology was more sensitive than the larval's, we also measured asymmetry and mean shape of the adult wings. Finally, to test for a trans-generational phenotypic effect, we measured mentum shape variations in the offspring derived from the measured adults. Overall, our results point out a very limited phenotypic response to contaminated sediments, suggesting that a multiple exposure is not necessarily sufficient to generate phenotypic defects. Adult traits were no more affected than larval traits, discarding the hypothesis that adult phenotypes would be more sensitive biomarkers. Finally, no effect was detected on the offspring generation, suggesting that no trans-generational effect occurs. This general lack of effect suggests that the use of phenotypic defects in C. riparius as an indicator of sediment contamination should be considered cautiously.Science of The Total Environment 06/2014; 484:92–101. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.010 · 3.16 Impact Factor