Glioma invasiveness responds variably to irradiation in a co-culture model
ABSTRACT We developed a co-culture system to quantitate the growth and invasion of human malignant gliomas into a background of confluent normal human astrocytes, then used this assay to assess independently the effects of irradiating both cell types on glioma invasion.
Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled immortalized human astrocytes, human malignant glioma cells, or transformed human astrocytes were focally plated onto a confluent layer of normal human astrocytes, and the invasiveness of EGFP-labeled cells was scored after 96 h. To address the consequences of irradiation on glioma invasion, the invasiveness of irradiated glioma cell lines and irradiated astrocytic backgrounds was assessed. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to quantitate the total number of EGFP-labeled cells.
Growth in the co-culture assay consistently reflected transformation states of the plated cells. Immortalized, but untransformed human astrocytes failed even to establish growth on confluent normal human astrocytes. In contrast, all malignant human glioma cell lines and transformed human astrocytes demonstrated various degrees of infiltration into the astrocytic bed. Irradiation failed to alter the invasiveness of U87, A172, and U373. A 1-Gy dose slightly reduced the invasiveness of U251 MG by 75% (p < 0.05 by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Neuman-Keuls), without reducing total cell numbers. Independently irradiating the human astrocytic bed did not alter the invasiveness of nonirradiated U251, whereas the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor GM6001 reduced U251 invasiveness in the co-culture assay.
Growth in the co-culture assay reflects the transformation status and provides a useful in vitro model for assessing invasiveness. Human glioma invasiveness in the co-culture model responds variably to single low-dose fractions. MMP activity promotes invasiveness in the co-culture model. Reduced invasiveness in irradiated U251 appears to be mediated by MMP-independent mechanisms.
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ABSTRACT: Increased expression of the proteoglycan, versican is strongly associated with poor outcome for many different cancers. Depending on the cancer type, versican is expressed by either the cancer cells themselves or by stromal cells surrounding the tumor. Versican plays diverse roles in cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and angiogenesis, all features of invasion and metastasis. These wide ranging functions have been attributed to the central glycosaminoglycan-binding region of versican, and to the N-(G1) and C-(G3) terminal globular domains which collectively interact with a large number of extracellular matrix and cell surface structural components. Here we review the recently identified mechanisms responsible for the regulation of versican expression and the biological roles that versican plays in cancer invasion and metastasis. The regulation of versican expression may represent one mechanism whereby cancer cells alter their surrounding microenvironment to facilitate the malignant growth and invasion of several tumor types. A greater understanding of the regulation of versican expression may contribute to the development of therapeutic methods to inhibit versican function and tumor invasion.CANCER AND METASTASIS REVIEW 02/2009; 28(1-2):233-45. DOI:10.1007/s10555-009-9182-y · 7.23 Impact Factor
- International Journal of Oncology 03/2009; 34(4). DOI:10.3892/ijo_00000231 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) play a critical role in glioblastoma (GBM) which is characterized by highly aggressive and widespread cell invasion into adjacent normal brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the novel aminothiazole com-pound SNS-032 in glioblastoma cell invasion under hypoxic condition. SNS-032 is a potent and selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 2, 7 and 9 and inhibits both cell cycle and transcription. We analyzed the effect of SNS-032 (0.5 microM) on HIF-1alpha expression and its major trans-regulating factors including COX-2, VEGF, MMP-2 and uPAR that are involved in cellular invasion in tumor hypoxia. Our observations demonstrate SNS-032: i) inhibited hypoxia-induced U87MG cell invasion and among all the other inhibitors tested, SNS-032 is the most effective, ii) blocked HIF-1alpha mediated transcription of COX-2, MMP-2, VEGF and uPAR expression in U87MG cells in response to hypoxia, iii) blocked HIF-1alpha expression by a proteasome independent pathway. The effects were similar to those observed with HIF-1alpha siRNA which prevented cellular invasion by blocking HIF-1alpha expression and its downstream effectors. Taken together, our data suggest that SNS-032 prevents hypoxia-mediated U87MG cell invasion by blocking the expression of HIF-1alpha and its trans-regulating factors. Our results present an opportunity in controlling highly invasive tumors such as glioblastoma using this novel class of compounds.International Journal of Oncology 05/2009; 34(4):1051-60. · 3.03 Impact Factor