Hydrolysis of a series of parabens by skin microsomes and cytosol from human and minipigs and in whole skin in short-term culture.
ABSTRACT Parabens are esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and used as anti-microbial agents in a wide variety of toiletries, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. It is of interest to understand the dermal absorption and hydrolysis of parabens, and to evaluate their disposition after dermal exposure and their potential to illicit localised toxicity. The use of minipig as a surrogate model for human dermal metabolism and toxicity studies, justifies the comparison of paraben metabolism in human and minipig skin. Parabens are hydrolysed by carboxylesterases to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The effects of the carboxylesterase inhibitors paraoxon and bis-nitrophenylphosphate provided evidence of the involvement of dermal carboxylesterases in paraben hydrolysis. Loperamide, a specific inhibitor of human carboxylesterase-2 inhibited butyl- and benzylparaben hydrolysis in human skin but not methylparaben or ethylparaben. These results show that butyl- and benzylparaben are more selective substrates for human carboxylesterase-2 in skin than the other parabens examined. Parabens applied to the surface of human or minipig skin were absorbed to a similar amount and metabolised to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid during dermal absorption. These results demonstrate that the minipig is a suitable model for man for assessing dermal absorption and hydrolysis of parabens, although the carboxylesterase profile in skin differs between human and minipig.
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ABSTRACT: p-Hydroxybenzoate ester (paraben) preservatives are used in numerous orally administered products. The recognized route of metabolism for parabens is hydrolysis to p-hydroxybenzoic acid followed by conjugation and excretion. However, in the presence of alcohols, a presystemic transesterification pathway not previously reported for the human intestine can occur. Using human intestinal (Caco-2) cells, it was observed that hydrolysis of parabens to p-hydroxybenzoic acid is reduced markedly by ethanol concentrations that can occur in the human intestine, 0.25-0.5% (v/v). Ethanol concentrations of 1.0-2.5% (v/v) were optimal for transesterification to ethylparaben in Caco-2 cell homogenates. The kinetics of the transesterification reaction with regard to ethanol concentration (0-20%), time, pH (3-9), protein concentration (1-5 mg ml-1) and substrate concentration (6.25-200 microM) as well as the effects of different alcohols were studied. The Km and Vmax values for transesterification with ethanol for methyl, propyl, butyl, heptyl and octyl parabens were 449.7, 165.7, 86.1, 24.2 and 45.9 microM and 114.4, 37.5, 19.5, 7.5 and 7.6 micromol h-1 mg-1 Caco-2 cell protein, respectively. The Vmax values for transesterification of methylparaben with ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol were 114.4, 5.1 and 4.9 micromol h-1 mg-1, respectively. Collectively, the kinetic data demonstrate that the enzyme responsible for the transesterification reaction has a preference for short-chain esters and represents the first report of transesterification in human intestinal cells. An implication of this mechanism is that alcohol-containing in vitro biosystems or protocols for the study of parabens disposition could generate transesterified artefacts. The clinical or toxicological implication is that, following co-ingestion of ester compounds with ethanol, transesterification could provide the basis for a previously unrecognized drug-alcohol interaction.Xenobiotica 10/2006; 36(9):739-49. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parabens are used as preservatives in many thousands of cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products to which the human population is exposed. Although recent reports of the oestrogenic properties of parabens have challenged current concepts of their toxicity in these consumer products, the question remains as to whether any of the parabens can accumulate intact in the body from the long-term, low-dose levels to which humans are exposed. Initial studies reported here show that parabens can be extracted from human breast tissue and detected by thin-layer chromatography. More detailed studies enabled identification and measurement of mean concentrations of individual parabens in samples of 20 human breast tumours by high-pressure liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry. The mean concentration of parabens in these 20 human breast tumours was found to be 20.6 +/- 4.2 ng x g(-1) tissue. Comparison of individual parabens showed that methylparaben was present at the highest level (with a mean value of 12.8 +/- 2.2 ng x g(-1) tissue) and represents 62% of the total paraben recovered in the extractions. These studies demonstrate that parabens can be found intact in the human breast and this should open the way technically for more detailed information to be obtained on body burdens of parabens and in particular whether body burdens are different in cancer from those in normal tissues.Journal of Applied Toxicology 01/2004; 24(1):5-13. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The capacity of human, minipig, and rat skin and liver subcellular fractions to hydrolyze the anesthetic ester procaine was compared with carboxylesterase substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl-acetate, phenylvalerate, and para-nitrophenylacetate and the arylesterase substrate phenylacetate. Rates of procaine hydrolysis by minipig and human skin microsomal and cytosolic fractions were similar, with rat displaying higher activity. Loperamide inhibited procaine hydrolysis by human skin, suggesting involvement of human carboxylesterase hCE2. The esterase activity and inhibition profiles in the skin were similar for minipig and human, whereas rat had a higher capacity to metabolize esters and a different inhibition profile. Minipig and human liver and skin esterase activity was inhibited principally by paraoxon and bis-nitrophenyl phosphate, classical carboxylesterase inhibitors. Rat skin and liver esterase activity was inhibited additionally by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and the arylesterase inhibitor mercuric chloride, indicating a different esterase profile. These results have highlighted the potential of skin to hydrolyze procaine following topical application, which possibly limits its pharmacological effect. Skin from minipig used as an animal model for assessing transdermal drug preparations had similar capacity to hydrolyze esters to human skin.Drug Metabolism and Disposition 12/2007; 35(11):2015-22. · 3.36 Impact Factor