Involvement of gamma-secretase in postnatal angiogenesis.
ABSTRACT gamma-Secretase cleaves the transmembrane domains of several integral membrane proteins involved in vasculogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of gamma-secretase in the regulation of postnatal angiogenesis using gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI). In endothelial cell (EC), gamma-secretase activity was up-regulated under hypoxia or the treatment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as c-fos promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced VEGF and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression. Indeed, GSI attenuated VEGF-induced tube formation and inhibited FGF-2-induced angiogenesis on matrigel in mice as quantified by FITC-lectin staining of EC. Overall, we demonstrated that gamma-secretase may be key molecule in postnatal angiogenesis which may be downstream molecule of growth factor-induced growth and migration in EC, and regulate the expression of angiogenic growth factors in VSMC.
- SourceAvailable from: Harpreet Sidhu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease research has been at an impasse in recent years with lingering questions about the involvement of Amyloid-β (Aβ). Early versions of the amyloid hypothesis considered Aβ something of an undesirable byproduct of APP processing that wreaks havoc on the human neocortex, yet evolutionary conservation--over three hundred million years--indicates this peptide plays an important biological role in survival and reproductive fitness. Here we describe how Aβ regulates blood vessel branching in tissues as varied as human umbilical vein and zebrafish hindbrain. High physiological concentrations of Aβ monomer induced angiogenesis by a conserved mechanism that blocks γ-secretase processing of a Notch intermediate, NEXT, and reduces the expression of downstream Notch target genes. Our findings allude to an integration of signaling pathways that utilize γ-secretase activity, which may have significant implications for our understanding of Alzheimer's pathogenesis vis-à-vis vascular changes that set the stage for ensuing neurodegeneration.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e39598. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The development of atherosclerotic lesions associates with the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and their migration from arterial tunica media to the intima. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 can trigger either phenomena, which are accompanied by the functional impairment of the p53 transcription factor. However, FGF-2 impact on p53 function in VSMC is largely unknown. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses assayed FGF-2 effect on human primary VSMC expression of p53-induced molecules with a role in atherogenesis. Confocal microscopy evaluated whether FGF-2 could affect p53 distribution inside VSMC. Results indicate that VSMC exposure to FGF-2 at amounts stimulating the proliferation and migration of these cells promotes p53 phosphorylation and transient accumulation in VSMC nuclei. This is followed by an increase in the expression of the p53-induced thrombospondin (TSP)-1, a VSMC growth and motility factor, and human double minute 2 (HDM2), an antagonist of p53 transcriptional and growth suppressive activity. At later time points, in agreement with the increase of HDM2 and with the capability of this protein to export nuclear p53 to the cytoplasm, the content of p53 in VSMC nuclei is reduced, and the expression of the p53-targeted TSP-l and HDM2 is diminished. Since FGF-2, p53, TSP-1, and HDM2 are expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions, the in vitro effects of FGF-2 described herein may be operative in vivo, providing a molecular mechanism for FGF-2 pro-atherogenic activity.Atherosclerosis 06/2010; 210(2):400-6. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: During the past decade, a variety of Notch and Hedgehog pathway inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of several cancers. An emerging paradigm suggests that these same gene regulatory networks are often recapitulated in the context of cardiovascular disease and may now offer an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. AREAS COVERED: This article briefly reviews the profile of Notch and Hedgehog inhibitors that have reached the preclinic and clinic for cancer treatment and discusses the clinical issues surrounding targeted use of these inhibitors in the treatment of vascular disorders. EXPERT OPINION: Preclinical and clinical data using pan-Notch inhibitors (γ-secretase inhibitors) and selective antibodies to preferentially target notch receptors and ligands have proven successful but concerns remain over normal organ homeostasis and significant pathology in multiple organs. By contrast, the Hedgehog-based drug pipeline is rich with more than a dozen Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors at various stages of development. Overall, refined strategies will be necessary to harness these pathways safely as a powerful tool to disrupt angiogenesis and vascular proliferative phenomena without causing prohibitive side effects already seen with cancer models and patients.Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 12/2011; 20(12):1649-64. · 4.74 Impact Factor