Involvement of gamma-secretase in postnatal angiogenesis.
ABSTRACT gamma-Secretase cleaves the transmembrane domains of several integral membrane proteins involved in vasculogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of gamma-secretase in the regulation of postnatal angiogenesis using gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI). In endothelial cell (EC), gamma-secretase activity was up-regulated under hypoxia or the treatment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as c-fos promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced VEGF and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression. Indeed, GSI attenuated VEGF-induced tube formation and inhibited FGF-2-induced angiogenesis on matrigel in mice as quantified by FITC-lectin staining of EC. Overall, we demonstrated that gamma-secretase may be key molecule in postnatal angiogenesis which may be downstream molecule of growth factor-induced growth and migration in EC, and regulate the expression of angiogenic growth factors in VSMC.
SourceAvailable from: Harpreet Sidhu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease research has been at an impasse in recent years with lingering questions about the involvement of Amyloid-β (Aβ). Early versions of the amyloid hypothesis considered Aβ something of an undesirable byproduct of APP processing that wreaks havoc on the human neocortex, yet evolutionary conservation--over three hundred million years--indicates this peptide plays an important biological role in survival and reproductive fitness. Here we describe how Aβ regulates blood vessel branching in tissues as varied as human umbilical vein and zebrafish hindbrain. High physiological concentrations of Aβ monomer induced angiogenesis by a conserved mechanism that blocks γ-secretase processing of a Notch intermediate, NEXT, and reduces the expression of downstream Notch target genes. Our findings allude to an integration of signaling pathways that utilize γ-secretase activity, which may have significant implications for our understanding of Alzheimer's pathogenesis vis-à-vis vascular changes that set the stage for ensuing neurodegeneration.PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e39598. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039598 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study stresses the hypothesis whether hypoxic events contribute to formation and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) in cerebral blood vessels by affecting the processing of endothelial amyloid precursor protein (APP). Therefore, cerebral endothelial cells (ECs) derived from transgenic Tg2576 mouse brain, were subjected to short periods of hypoxic stress, followed by assessment of formation and secretion of APP cleavage products sAPPα, sAPPβ, and Aβ as well as the expression of endothelial APP. Hypoxic stress of EC leads to enhanced secretion of sAPPβ into the culture medium as compared to normoxic controls, which is accompanied by increased APP expression, induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) synthesis, nitric oxide production, and differential changes in endothelial p42/44 (ERK1/2) expression. The hypoxia-mediated up-regulation of p42/44 at a particular time of incubation was accompanied by a corresponding down-regulation of the phosphorylated form of p42/44. To reveal any role of hypoxia-induced VEGF in endothelial APP processing, ECs were exposed by VEGF. VEGF hardly affected the amount of sAPPβ and Aβ(1-40) secreted into the culture medium, whereas the suppression of the VEGF receptor action by SU-5416 resulted in decreased release of sAPPβ and Aβ(1-40) in comparison to control incubations, suggesting a role of VEGF in controlling the activity of γ-secretase, presumably via the VEGF receptor-associated tyrosine kinase. The data suggest that hypoxic stress represents a mayor risk factor in causing Aβ deposition in the brain vascular system by favoring the amyloidogenic route of endothelial APP processing. The hypoxic-stress-induced changes in β-secretase activity are presumably mediated by altering the phosphorylation status of p42/44, whereas the stress-induced up-regulation of VEGF appears to play a counteracting role by maintaining the balance of physiological APP processing.Nutritional Neuroscience 11/2013; 18(1). DOI:10.1179/1476830513Z.000000000112 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Notch1 is a transcription factor on the membrane and regulates various stages of neurogenesis. Recently, studies have shown that in vitro neurogenesis is enhanced by hypoxia, and there is cross-coupling between Notch and hypoxia signaling pathways in vitro. However, to date, no data have reported whether Notch1 can be regulated by hypoxia in vivo and mediates hypoxia-induced neurogenesis. To determine causative links between Notch1, neurogenesis and hypoxia, we examined multiple steps of hippocampal neurogenesis followed intermittent hypoxia (IH) in wild type (WT) and Notch1 heterozygous deficient (N+/-) mice. We found that IH increased NSCs proliferation, newborn neurons survival and migration, and spine morphogenesis in dentate gyrus of hippocampus, as well as neurogenesis in olfactory bulb in WT mice. However, IH-enhanced neurogenesis was inhibited in N+/- mice. It was shown that Notch1 signaling was activated following IH in WT mice, but not in N+/- mice. Our data indicated that IH, as a novel external stimulus, enhances neurogenesis at multiple stages and that Notch1 is activated by hypoxia in vivo and required for hypoxia-induced neurogenesis. These results suggest IH as a novel therapeutic strategy for degenerative neurological disorders and provide evidence for causative links between Notch1, neurogenesis and hypoxia.Neurobiology of Disease 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2013.12.010 · 5.62 Impact Factor