Article

A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2217 McGavran-Greenberg Hall, CB 7461, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 4.39). 09/2007; 15(9):2276-81. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2007.270
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective was to assess the effect of a low-fat, vegan diet compared with the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) diet on weight loss maintenance at 1 and 2 years.
Sixty-four overweight, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a vegan or NCEP diet for 14 weeks, and 62 women began the study. The study was done in two replications. Participants in the first replication (N = 28) received no follow-up support after the 14 weeks, and those in the second replication (N = 34) were offered group support meetings for 1 year. Weight and diet adherence were measured at 1 and 2 years for all participants. Weight loss is reported as median (interquartile range) and is the difference from baseline weight at years 1 and 2.
Individuals in the vegan group lost more weight than those in the NCEP group at 1 year [-4.9 (-0.5, -8.0) kg vs. -1.8 (0.8, -4.3); p < 0.05] and at 2 years [-3.1 (0.0, -6.0) kg vs. -0.8 (3.1, -4.2) kg; p < 0.05]. Those participants offered group support lost more weight at 1 year (p < 0.01) and 2 years (p < 0.05) than those without support. Attendance at meetings was associated with improved weight loss at 1 year (p < 0.001) and 2 years (p < 0.01).
A vegan diet was associated with significantly greater weight loss than the NCEP diet at 1 and 2 years. Both group support and meeting attendance were associated with significant weight loss at follow-up.

0 Followers
 · 
187 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To determine the effect of plant-based diets on weight loss. Research Methods and Procedures: Participants were enrolled in a six-month, five-arm, randomized controlled trial in 2013 in South Carolina. Participants attended weekly group meetings, with the exception of the omnivorous group, which served as the control and attended monthly meetings augmented with weekly e-mail lessons. All groups attended monthly meetings for the last four months of the study. Diets did not emphasize caloric restriction. Results Overweight adults (body mass index: 25.0-49.9 kg/m2; age: 18-65 years, 19% nonwhite, and 27% male) were randomized to a diet emphasizing a low-fat and low-glycemic index diet: vegan (n=12), vegetarian (n=13), pesco-vegetarian (n=13), semi-vegetarian (n=13), or omnivorous (n=12). Fifty (79%) participants completed the study. In intention-to-treat analysis, the linear trend for weight loss across the five groups was significant at both two (P<0.01) and six months (P<0.01). At six months, the weight loss in the vegan group (-7.5 ± 4.5%) was significantly different from the omnivorous (-3.1 ± 3.6%, P=0.03), semi-vegetarian (-3.2 ± 3.8%, P=0.03), and pesco-vegetarian (-3.2 ± 3.4%, P=0.03) groups. Vegan participants decreased their fat and saturated fat more than did the pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous groups at both two and six months (P<0.05). Conclusions Vegan diets may result in greater weight loss than more modest recommendations.
    Nutrition 10/2014; 31(2). DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2014.09.002 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the past century, animal agriculture in the United States has transformed from a system of small, family farms to a largely industrialized model—often known as ‘industrial farm animal production’ (IFAP). This model has successfully produced a large supply of cheap meat, eggs and dairy products, but at significant costs to animal welfare, the environment, the risk of zoonotic disease, the economic and social health of rural communities, and overall food abundance. Over the past 40 years, numerous critiques of IFAP have been published, for both academic and non-academic audiences, mostly focusing on our obligations to animals. Here we offer a comprehensive critique of IFAP, focusing not only on our obligations to animals, but also important environmental, social, economic, and public health concerns. Our cumulative argument proceeds in five steps: (1) we briefly review the structure and key characteristics of IFAP; (2) we review the adverse effects of IFAP; (3) we review the historical development and positive rationale for IFAP; (4) we summarize previous moral critiques of IFAP, as well as defenses of it; and (5) we offer a moral critique of IFAP based on the common morality, and in particular on a principle of nonmaleficence, which we take to be the least controversial argument.
    Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 06/2014; 27(3):479-522. DOI:10.1007/s10806-014-9497-8 · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, synthesize, and interpret findings from recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary and lifestyle weight loss interventions examining the effects of (1) diet composition, (2) use of food provision, and (3) modality of treatment delivery on weight loss. Trials comparing different dietary approaches indicated that reducing carbohydrate intake promoted greater initial weight loss than other approaches but did not appear to significantly improve long-term outcomes. Food provision appears to enhance adherence to reduction in energy intake and produce greater initial weight losses. The long-term benefits of food provision are less clear. Trials comparing alternative treatment modalities suggest that phone-based treatment produce short- and long-term weight reductions equivalent to face-to-face interventions. The use of Internet and mobile technologies are associated with smaller reductions in body weight than face-to-face interventions. Based on this review, clinical implications and future research directions are provided.
    Current Atherosclerosis Reports 10/2014; 16(10):442. DOI:10.1007/s11883-014-0442-0 · 3.06 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
114 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014

Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy