Extracting kinetic rate constants from surface plasmon resonance array systems.
ABSTRACT Surface plasmon resonance imaging systems, such as Flexchip from Biacore, are capable of monitoring hundreds of reaction spots simultaneously within a single flow cell. Interpreting the binding kinetics in a large-format flow cell presents a number of potential challenges, including accounting for mass transport effects and spot-to-spot sample depletion. We employed a combination of computer simulations and experimentation to characterize these effects across the spotted array and established that a simple two-compartment model may be used to accurately extract intrinsic rate constants from the array under mass transport-limited conditions. Using antibody systems, we demonstrate that the spot-to-spot variability in the binding kinetics was <9%. We also illustrate the advantage of globally fitting binding data from multiple spots within an array for a system that is mass transport limited.
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ABSTRACT: Surface-based binding assays are often influenced by the transport of analyte to the sensor surface. Using simulated data sets, we test a simple two-compartment model to see if its description of transport and binding is sufficient to accurately analyze BIACORE data. First we present a computer model that can generate realistic BIACORE data. This model calculates the laminar flow of analyte within the flow cell, its diffusion both perpendicular and parallel to the sensor surface, and the reversible chemical reaction between analyte and immobilized reactant. We use this computer model to generate binding data under a variety of conditions. An analysis of these data sets with the two-compartment model demonstrates that good estimates of the intrinsic reaction rate constants are recovered even when mass transport influences the binding reaction. We also discuss the conditions under which the two-compartment model can be used to determine the diffusion coefficient of the analyte. Our results illustrate that this model can significantly extend the range of association rate constants that can be accurately determined from BIACORE.Biophysical Journal 09/1998; 75(2):583-94. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Class II major histocompatibility complex proteins bind peptides for presentation to T-cells as part of the immune response process. Monoclonal antibody MEM-265 recognizes the peptide-free conformation of the major histocompatibility complex class II protein HLA-DR1 through specific binding to an epitope contained between residues 50-67 of the beta-chain. In previous work using alanine scanning (1), we identified residues Leu-53, Asp-57, Tyr-60, Trp-61, Ser-63, and Leu-67 as essential for specific recognition by MEM-265. The spacing of these residues approximates a 3.5-residue repeat, suggesting that MEM-265 may recognize the epitope in an alpha-helical conformation. In the folded, peptide-loaded DR1 structure, the beta-chain residues 50-67 contain a kinked alpha-helical segment spanning Glu-52-Ser-63 (2). However, the conformation of this segment in the peptide-free form is unknown. We have used a new surface plasmon resonance approach in a SpotMatrix format to compare the kinetic rates and affinities for 18 alanine scanning mutants comprising epitope residues 50-67. In addition to the six essential residues described previously, we found two additional residues, Glu-52 and Gln-64, that contribute by enhancing MEM-265 binding. By contrast, mutation of either Gly-54 or Pro-56 to an alanine actually improved binding to MEM-265. In essentially all cases peptide substitutions that either improve or reduce MEM-265 recognition could be traced to differences in the dissociation rate (k off). The kinetic details of the present study support the presence of a structural component in the antigenic epitope recognized by MEM-265 in the peptide-free form of major histocompatibility complex II DR1 beta-chain.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2005; 280(6):4188-94. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins bind peptides and present them at the cell surface for interaction with CD4+ T cells as part of the system by which the immune system surveys the body for signs of infection. Peptide binding is known to induce conformational changes in class II MHC proteins on the basis of a variety of hydrodynamic and spectroscopic approaches, but the changes have not been clearly localized within the overall class II MHC structure. To map the peptide-induced conformational change for HLA-DR1, a common human class II MHC variant, we generated a series of monoclonal antibodies recognizing the beta subunit that are specific for the empty conformation. Each antibody reacted with the empty but not the peptide-loaded form, for both soluble recombinant protein and native protein expressed at the cell surface. Antibody binding epitopes were characterized using overlapping peptides and alanine scanning substitutions and were localized to two distinct regions of the protein. The pattern of key residues within the epitopes suggested that the two epitope regions undergo substantial conformational alteration during peptide binding. These results illuminate aspects of the structure of the empty forms and the nature of the peptide-induced conformational change.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2004; 279(16):16561-70. · 4.65 Impact Factor