Extracting kinetic rate constants from surface plasmon resonance array systems.
ABSTRACT Surface plasmon resonance imaging systems, such as Flexchip from Biacore, are capable of monitoring hundreds of reaction spots simultaneously within a single flow cell. Interpreting the binding kinetics in a large-format flow cell presents a number of potential challenges, including accounting for mass transport effects and spot-to-spot sample depletion. We employed a combination of computer simulations and experimentation to characterize these effects across the spotted array and established that a simple two-compartment model may be used to accurately extract intrinsic rate constants from the array under mass transport-limited conditions. Using antibody systems, we demonstrate that the spot-to-spot variability in the binding kinetics was <9%. We also illustrate the advantage of globally fitting binding data from multiple spots within an array for a system that is mass transport limited.
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ABSTRACT: The simultaneous detection of multiple biological analytes is achieved for the first time using a single optical fiber based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. This is achieved by collecting the plasmonic wave re-scattered by a rough metallic coating deposited onto two separate sections (sensing regions) of a single multimode optical fiber. The results obtained showed that two gastric cancer biomarkers (apolipoprotein E and clusterin) are detected in clinically relevant concentrations each on a separate sensing region, simultaneously, something that cannot be done in traditional fiber based SPR biosensors that read the transmitted or reflected light to monitor the position of the resonance. While this multiplexing demonstration has been performed with two different biomarkers, it paves the way for the multiplexed detection of a larger number of biomarkers using a simple fiber optic based SPR sensor for point of decision diagnostics.Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 07/2013; 5:454-458. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Advances in human antibody discovery have allowed for the selection of hundreds of high affinity antibodies against many therapeutically relevant targets. This has necessitated the development of reproducible, high throughput analytical techniques to characterize the output from these selections. Among these characterizations, epitopic coverage and affinity are among the most critical properties for lead identification. Biolayer interferometry (BLI) is an attractive technique for epitope binning due to its speed and low antigen consumption. While surface-based methods such as BLI and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are commonly used for affinity determinations, sensor chemistry and surface related artifacts can limit the accuracy of high affinity measurements. When comparing BLI and solution equilibrium based kinetic exclusion assays, significant differences in measured affinity (10-fold and above) were observed. KinExA direct association (ka) rate constant measurements suggest that this is mainly caused by inaccurate ka measurements associated with BLI related surface phenomena. Based on the kinetic exclusion assay principle used for KinExA, we developed a high throughput 96-well plate format assay, using a Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) instrument, to measure solution equilibrium affinity. This improved method combines the accuracy of solution-based methods with the throughput formerly only achievable with surface-based methods.mAbs 03/2013; 5(2):270-8. · 5.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The detailed understanding of the functions and mechanisms of the actin and microtubuli cytoskeleton depended, besides innovative methods in live cell imaging, on the purification and labeling of its constituents. This allowed researchers to quantitatively measure filament stability, the rates of filament turnover as well as the determination of the influence of cofactors on filament formation and structure. Septins form the least understood class of cytoskeletal structures in nearly all eukaryotic cells so far examined. In yeast, they comprise a family of proteins (Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12, Shs1) that form a co-polymeric, ring-like structure beneath the membrane. This ring serves as a template for the formation of a new bud neck and as a landing pat for proteins involved in polar growth and cytokinesis. Further progress in investigating the mechanisms of septin-structure formation and regulation is hampered by the lack of protocols to modify homogenous samples of purified septins with useful probes for in vitro biochemical studies. We present a protocol for the purification and labeling of yeast septin rods. The four individual septin subunits were co-expressed in E.coli. One subunit of the septin polymer was expressed as SNAP tag fusion protein allowing for rapid and stoichiometric labeling with derivatized Benzylguanine (BG). To demonstrate the applicability of our approach, we introduced two different SNAP tag substrates: septin rods labeled with fluorescent BG compounds enabled us to monitor the formation of filaments by fluorescence microscopy whereas BG-biotin was used to couple septin rods to a sensor chip for quantitative surface plasmon resonance binding experiments. In a first application, we determined the affinity and the binding kinetics of the yeast protein Bni5 to the individually coupled septin rods. In a further application we could demonstrate that a once formed septin rod hardly exchange its subunits. The herein introduced protocol of purifying SNAP tag modified septins from E. coli allowed us to derivatize the obtained septin rods with probes for the further in vitro characterization of this class of cytoskeletal elements. The availability of a very diverse set of SNAP tag substrates should open the way to investigate different aspects of septin biochemistry in mechanistic detail.BMC Biotechnology 07/2013; 13(1):60. · 2.17 Impact Factor