Inherited mitochondrial diseases of DNA replication.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.
Annual Review of Medicine (Impact Factor: 15.48). 02/2008; 59:131-46. DOI: 10.1146/
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mitochondrial genetic diseases can result from defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the form of deletions, point mutations, or depletion, which ultimately cause loss of oxidative phosphorylation. These mutations may be spontaneous, maternally inherited, or a result of inherited nuclear defects in genes that maintain mtDNA. This review focuses on our current understanding of nuclear gene mutations that produce mtDNA alterations and cause mitochondrial depletion syndrome (MDS), progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), ataxia-neuropathy, or mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). To date, all of these etiologic nuclear genes fall into one of two categories: genes whose products function directly at the mtDNA replication fork, such as POLG, POLG2, and TWINKLE, or genes whose products supply the mitochondria with deoxynucleotide triphosphate pools needed for DNA replication, such as TK2, DGUOK, TP, SUCLA2, ANT1, and possibly the newly identified MPV17.

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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial chaperones have multiple functions that are essential for proper functioning of mitochondria. In the human-pathogenic protist Trypanosoma brucei, we demonstrate a novel function of the highly conserved machinery composed of mitochondrial heat shock proteins 70 and 40 (mtHsp70/mtHsp40) and the ATP exchange factor Mge1. The mitochondrial DNA of T. brucei, also known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), is represented by a single catenated network composed of thousands of minicircles and dozens of maxicircles packed into an electron-dense kDNA disk. The chaperones mtHsp70 and mtHsp40 and their cofactor Mge1 are uniformly distributed throughout the single mitochondrial network and are all essential for the parasite. Following RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of each of these proteins, the kDNA network shrinks and eventually disappears. Ultrastructural analysis of cells depleted for mtHsp70 or mtHsp40 revealed that the otherwise compact kDNA network becomes severely compromised, a consequence of decreased maxicircle and minicircle copy numbers. Moreover, we show that the replication of minicircles is impaired, although the lack of these proteins has a bigger impact on the less abundant maxicircles. We provide additional evidence that these chaperones are indispensable for the maintenance and replication of kDNA, in addition to their already known functions in Fe-S cluster synthesis and protein import. IMPORTANCE : Impairment or loss of mitochondrial DNA is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and a wide range of neural, muscular, and other diseases. We present the first evidence showing that the entire mtHsp70/mtHsp40 machinery plays an important role in mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance, a function likely retained from prokaryotes. These abundant, ubiquitous, and multifunctional chaperones share phenotypes with enzymes engaged in the initial stages of replication of the mitochondrial DNA in T. brucei. Copyright © 2015 Týč et al.
    mBio 01/2015; 6(1). DOI:10.1128/mBio.02425-14 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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