Protective effect of heat-processed American ginseng against diabetic renal damage in rats.
ABSTRACT We investigated the effects of American ginseng (AG) and heat-processed American ginseng (H-AG) on diabetic renal damage using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats in this study. The diabetic rats showed a loss of body weight gain, and increases in kidney weight, food intake, water intake, and urine volume, whereas the oral administration of H-AG at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight per day for 20 days attenuated these diabetes-induced physiological abnormalities. Among the renal function parameters, the elevated urinary protein levels in diabetic control rats were significantly decreased by the AG or H-AG administrations, and the decreased creatinine clearance level was significantly increased in H-AG-administered rats. In addition, the markedly high serum levels of glucose and glycosylated protein in diabetic control rats were significantly decreased by the administration of H-AG, implying that H-AG might prevent the pathogenesis of diabetic complications caused by impaired glucose metabolism and glycosylation of serum proteins. Although no significant ameliorations were shown in overexpressed protein expressions related to diabetic oxidative stress by the AG or H-AG administrations, the accumulation of N (epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and receptors for advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) expressions were significantly reduced by the administration of H-AG. On the basis of these results, we found that AG and H-AG inhibit AGE accumulation in diabetic rat kidney by their hypoglycemic and renal function ameliorating effects, and this effect was stronger in the H-AG-administered group than in the AG-administered group. These findings indicate that H-AG may have beneficial effect on pathological conditions associated with diabetic nephropathy.
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ABSTRACT: Proteinuric conditions demonstrate structural and compositional changes of the foot processes and slit diaphragms between podocytes. p130Cas in podocytes serves as an adapter protein anchoring glomerular basement membrane to actin filaments of podocyte cytoskeleton. To investigate the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on the pathologic changes of podocyte p130Cas induced by diabetic conditions, we cultured mouse podocytes under: 1) normal glucose (5 mM, control); 2) high glucose (HG, 30 mM); 3) advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGE)-added; or 4) HG plus AGE-added conditions and treated with GTS. In confocal imaging, p130Cas colocalized with zonula occludens-1 and synaptopodin connecting to F-actin. However, diabetic conditions relocalized p130Cas molecules at perinuclear cytoplasmic area and reduced the intensity of p130Cas. In Western blotting, diabetic conditions, especially HG plus AGE-added condition, decreased cellular p130Cas protein levels at 24 and 48 h. GTS improved such quantitative and qualitative changes. These findings imply that HG and AGE have an influence on the redistribution and amount of p130Cas of podocytes, which can be reversed by GTS.Journal of ginseng research 03/2013; 37(1):94-99. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed at assessing the effects of Kefir, a probiotic fermented milk, on oxidative stress in diabetic animals. The induction of diabetes was achieved in adult male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were distributed into four groups as follows: control (CTL); control Kefir (CTLK); diabetic (DM) and diabetic Kefir (DMK). Starting on the 5(th) day of diabetes, Kefir was administered by daily gavage at a dose of 1.8 mL/day for 8 weeks. Before and after Kefir treatment, the rats were placed in individual metabolic cages to obtain blood and urine samples to evaluate urea, creatinine, proteinuria, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). After sacrificing the animals, the renal cortex was removed for histology, oxidative stress and NOS evaluation. When compared to CTL rats, DM rats showed increased levels of glycemia, plasmatic urea, proteinuria, renal NO, superoxide anion, TBARS, and plasmatic CRP; also demonstrated a reduction in urinary urea, creatinine, and NO. However, DMK rats showed a significant improvement in most of these parameters. Despite the lack of differences observed in the expression of endothelial NO synthetase (eNOS), the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was significantly lower in the DMK group when compared to DM rats, as assessed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, the DMK group presented a significant reduction of glycogen accumulation within the renal tubules when compared to the DM group. These results indicate that Kefir treatment may contribute to better control of glycemia and oxidative stress, which is associated with the amelioration of renal function, suggesting its use as a non-pharmacological adjuvant to delay the progression of diabetic complications.Nitric Oxide 01/2014; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the serious complications in patients with either type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus but current treatments remain unsatisfactory. Results of clinical research studies demonstrate that Panax ginseng can help adjust blood pressure and reduce blood sugar and may be advantageous in the treatment of tuberculosis and kidney damage in people with diabetes. The heat-processing method to strengthen the efficacy of P. ginseng has been well-defined based on a long history of ethnopharmacological evidence. The protective effects of P. ginseng on pathological conditions and renal damage associated with diabetic nephropathy in the animal models were markedly improved by heat-processing. The concentrations of less-polar ginsenosides (20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1) and maltol in P. ginseng were significantly increased in a heat-processing temperature-dependent manner. Based on researches in animal models of diabetes, ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol were evaluated to have therapeutic potential against diabetic renal damage. These effects were achieved through the inhibition of inflammatory pathway activated by oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts. These findings indicate that ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol are important bioactive constituents of heat-processed ginseng in the control of pathological conditions associated with diabetic nephropathy.Journal of ginseng research 10/2013; 37(4):379-388. · 2.26 Impact Factor