Protective effect of heat-processed American ginseng against diabetic renal damage in rats.
ABSTRACT We investigated the effects of American ginseng (AG) and heat-processed American ginseng (H-AG) on diabetic renal damage using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats in this study. The diabetic rats showed a loss of body weight gain, and increases in kidney weight, food intake, water intake, and urine volume, whereas the oral administration of H-AG at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight per day for 20 days attenuated these diabetes-induced physiological abnormalities. Among the renal function parameters, the elevated urinary protein levels in diabetic control rats were significantly decreased by the AG or H-AG administrations, and the decreased creatinine clearance level was significantly increased in H-AG-administered rats. In addition, the markedly high serum levels of glucose and glycosylated protein in diabetic control rats were significantly decreased by the administration of H-AG, implying that H-AG might prevent the pathogenesis of diabetic complications caused by impaired glucose metabolism and glycosylation of serum proteins. Although no significant ameliorations were shown in overexpressed protein expressions related to diabetic oxidative stress by the AG or H-AG administrations, the accumulation of N (epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and receptors for advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) expressions were significantly reduced by the administration of H-AG. On the basis of these results, we found that AG and H-AG inhibit AGE accumulation in diabetic rat kidney by their hypoglycemic and renal function ameliorating effects, and this effect was stronger in the H-AG-administered group than in the AG-administered group. These findings indicate that H-AG may have beneficial effect on pathological conditions associated with diabetic nephropathy.
- SourceAvailable from: Cristina Stewart Bittencourt Bogsan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study aimed at assessing the effects of Kefir, a probiotic fermented milk, on oxidative stress in diabetic animals. The induction of diabetes was achieved in adult male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were distributed into four groups as follows: control (CTL); control Kefir (CTLK); diabetic (DM) and diabetic Kefir (DMK). Starting on the 5(th) day of diabetes, Kefir was administered by daily gavage at a dose of 1.8 mL/day for 8 weeks. Before and after Kefir treatment, the rats were placed in individual metabolic cages to obtain blood and urine samples to evaluate urea, creatinine, proteinuria, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). After sacrificing the animals, the renal cortex was removed for histology, oxidative stress and NOS evaluation. When compared to CTL rats, DM rats showed increased levels of glycemia, plasmatic urea, proteinuria, renal NO, superoxide anion, TBARS, and plasmatic CRP; also demonstrated a reduction in urinary urea, creatinine, and NO. However, DMK rats showed a significant improvement in most of these parameters. Despite the lack of differences observed in the expression of endothelial NO synthetase (eNOS), the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was significantly lower in the DMK group when compared to DM rats, as assessed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, the DMK group presented a significant reduction of glycogen accumulation within the renal tubules when compared to the DM group. These results indicate that Kefir treatment may contribute to better control of glycemia and oxidative stress, which is associated with the amelioration of renal function, suggesting its use as a non-pharmacological adjuvant to delay the progression of diabetic complications.Nitric Oxide 01/2014; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae) is a well-known herbal medicine in East Asia. The major bioactive metabolites in this root are commonly identified as ginsenosides. A series of ginsenosides were determined for in vitro human recombinant aldose reductase. This Letter aims to clarify the structural requirement for aldose reductase inhibition. We discovered that only ginsenoside 20(S)-Rh2 showed potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 147.3μM. These results implied that the stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group at C-20 may play an important role in aldose reductase inhibition. An understanding of these requirements is considered necessary in order to develop a new type of aldose reductase inhibitor. Furthermore, P. ginseng might be an important herbal medicine in preventing diabetic complications.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 08/2014; · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The actin cytoskeleton in the podocyte are essential for the maintenance of its normal structure and function, that disruption thereof is a feature of podocyte foot process effacement and is associated with proteinuria. α-Actinin-4 in podocytes serves as a linker protein binding actin filaments of cytoskeleton. To investigate the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on the pathologic changes of podocyte α-actinin-4 induced by diabetic conditions, we cultured mouse podocytes under normal glucose (5 mM) or high glucose (HG, 30 mM), and advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) or not added conditions, and treated with GTS. In confocal imaging, α-actinin-4 colocalized with the ends of F-actin fibers in cytoplasm, however, diabetic conditions disrupted F-actin fibers and concentrated α-actinin-4 molecules at peripheral cytoplasm. GTS upregulated α-actinin protein in time- and dose-dependent manners, and suppressed receptor for AGE levels in Western blotting. Diabetic conditions, including HG, AGE, and both, decreased cellular α-actinin-4 protein levels at 24 and 48 h. Such quantitative and qualitative changes of α-actinin-4 protein induced by diabetic conditions were mitigated by GTS. These findings imply that both HG and AGE have an influence on the distribution and amount of α-actinin-4 of podocytes, which can be recovered by GTS.Journal of ginseng research 05/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor