Protective Effect of Heat-Processed American Ginseng against Diabetic Renal Damage in Rats

Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 11/2007; 55(21):8491-7. DOI: 10.1021/jf071770y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated the effects of American ginseng (AG) and heat-processed American ginseng (H-AG) on diabetic renal damage using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats in this study. The diabetic rats showed a loss of body weight gain, and increases in kidney weight, food intake, water intake, and urine volume, whereas the oral administration of H-AG at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight per day for 20 days attenuated these diabetes-induced physiological abnormalities. Among the renal function parameters, the elevated urinary protein levels in diabetic control rats were significantly decreased by the AG or H-AG administrations, and the decreased creatinine clearance level was significantly increased in H-AG-administered rats. In addition, the markedly high serum levels of glucose and glycosylated protein in diabetic control rats were significantly decreased by the administration of H-AG, implying that H-AG might prevent the pathogenesis of diabetic complications caused by impaired glucose metabolism and glycosylation of serum proteins. Although no significant ameliorations were shown in overexpressed protein expressions related to diabetic oxidative stress by the AG or H-AG administrations, the accumulation of N (epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and receptors for advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) expressions were significantly reduced by the administration of H-AG. On the basis of these results, we found that AG and H-AG inhibit AGE accumulation in diabetic rat kidney by their hypoglycemic and renal function ameliorating effects, and this effect was stronger in the H-AG-administered group than in the AG-administered group. These findings indicate that H-AG may have beneficial effect on pathological conditions associated with diabetic nephropathy.

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    • "In vivo evidence for the roles of free radicals and AGEs in diabetic kidney disease comes mainly from studies in STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats [11]. We have previously showed that the protective effects of both P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius on renal damages in STZ-induced diabetic rats were significantly improved by heat-processing [39,40]. The kidney protecting active components of heat-processed P. ginseng were identified by investigating further the changes in the constituents of P. ginseng by heat-processing and its antioxidant activity [23,41-53]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the serious complications in patients with either type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus but current treatments remain unsatisfactory. Results of clinical research studies demonstrate that Panax ginseng can help adjust blood pressure and reduce blood sugar and may be advantageous in the treatment of tuberculosis and kidney damage in people with diabetes. The heat-processing method to strengthen the efficacy of P. ginseng has been well-defined based on a long history of ethnopharmacological evidence. The protective effects of P. ginseng on pathological conditions and renal damage associated with diabetic nephropathy in the animal models were markedly improved by heat-processing. The concentrations of less-polar ginsenosides (20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1) and maltol in P. ginseng were significantly increased in a heat-processing temperature-dependent manner. Based on researches in animal models of diabetes, ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol were evaluated to have therapeutic potential against diabetic renal damage. These effects were achieved through the inhibition of inflammatory pathway activated by oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts. These findings indicate that ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol are important bioactive constituents of heat-processed ginseng in the control of pathological conditions associated with diabetic nephropathy.
    Journal of ginseng research 10/2013; 37(4):379-388. DOI:10.5142/jgr.2013.37.379 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    • "Ginseng has also been reported to be effective in prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy of type 1 and type 2 diabetic animal models as followings. In type 1 insulin-dependent diabetic nephropathy animal models induced by streptozotocin, Sun ginseng [16], heat-processed American ginseng [17], and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 [18] ameliorated elevated serum glucose and renal damage. In type 2 insulin-independent diabetic nephropathy animal models, 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 also decreased the elevated blood glucose and proteinuria and augmented creatinine clearance in type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Proteinuric conditions demonstrate structural and compositional changes of the foot processes and slit diaphragms between podocytes. p130Cas in podocytes serves as an adapter protein anchoring glomerular basement membrane to actin filaments of podocyte cytoskeleton. To investigate the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on the pathologic changes of podocyte p130Cas induced by diabetic conditions, we cultured mouse podocytes under: 1) normal glucose (5 mM, control); 2) high glucose (HG, 30 mM); 3) advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGE)-added; or 4) HG plus AGE-added conditions and treated with GTS. In confocal imaging, p130Cas colocalized with zonula occludens-1 and synaptopodin connecting to F-actin. However, diabetic conditions relocalized p130Cas molecules at perinuclear cytoplasmic area and reduced the intensity of p130Cas. In Western blotting, diabetic conditions, especially HG plus AGE-added condition, decreased cellular p130Cas protein levels at 24 and 48 h. GTS improved such quantitative and qualitative changes. These findings imply that HG and AGE have an influence on the redistribution and amount of p130Cas of podocytes, which can be reversed by GTS.
    Journal of ginseng research 03/2013; 37(1):94-99. DOI:10.5142/jgr.2013.37.94 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    • "Using the ob/ob mouse model, we demonstrated that a 12-day treatment of American ginseng leaf and berry extracts decreased fasting blood glucose, improved glucose disposal, and reduced body weight (Attele et al., 2002; Xie et al., 2004a; Xie et al., 2004b). Heated American ginseng had stronger effects than unprocessed ginseng in inhibiting advanced accumulation of glycation endproducts in the diabetic rat kidney (Kim et al., 2007a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ginseng occupies a prominent position in the list of best-selling natural products in the world. Compared to the long history of use and widespread research on Asian ginseng, the study of American ginseng is relatively limited. In the past decade, some promising advances have been achieved in understanding the chemistry, pharmacology and structure-function relationship of American ginseng. To date, there is no systematic review of American ginseng. In this review, the different structures of the ginsenosides in American ginseng are described, including naturally occurring compounds and those resulting from steaming or biotransformation. Preclinical and clinical studies published in the past decade are also discussed. Highlighted are the chemical and pharmacological diversity and potential structural-activity relationship of ginsenosides. The goal is that this article is a useful reference to chemists and biologists researching American ginseng, and will open the door to agents in drug discovery.
    Phytochemistry 03/2011; 72(8):689-99. DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.02.012 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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