Improved adherence and anaemia cure rates with flexible administration of micronutrient Sprinkles: a new public health approach to anaemia control

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto and Program in Metabolism and Integrated Biology, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.
European journal of clinical nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.95). 09/2007; 63(2):165-72. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602917
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite repeated public commitments and availability of various forms of iron supplements, rates of anaemia in developing countries remain high. A major reason for this lack of success has been poor adherence. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of daily and flexible administration of micronutrient Sprinkles on adherence, acceptability and haematological status among young children in rural Bangladesh.
A sample of 362 children (haemoglobin (Hb)>or=70 g l(-1)) aged 6-24 months were cluster-randomized to receive 60 sachets of Sprinkles either (i) daily over 2 months; (ii) flexibly over 3 months; or (iii) flexibly over 4 months. With a flexible regimen, mothers/caregivers decided how frequently to use Sprinkles without exceeding one sachet per day. Adherence was assessed monthly by counting the number of sachets used and acceptability was evaluated through focus group discussions. Haemoglobin was measured at baseline, at the end of each intervention period and 6 months post-intervention.
Mean percent adherence was significantly higher in the flexible-4-month group (98%) compared to the flexible-3-month (93%) and daily-2-month (88%) groups (P<0.01). Most mothers found flexible administration to be more acceptable than daily due to perceived benefits of use. Hb at the end of intervention was significantly higher in the flexible-4-month group compared to the daily group (P=0.03). Anaemia prevalence decreased by 65% in the flexible-4-month group compared to 54% in the flexible-3-month and 51% in the daily-2-month groups. Percent of cured children who maintained a non-anaemic status 6 months post-intervention was significantly higher in the flexible-4-month (82%) and flexible-3-month (80%) groups than the daily-2-month (53%) group (P<0.05).
The adherence, acceptability and haematological response to flexible administration over 4 months were found preferable to daily.

  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To describe the regional master plan of nutrition to address maternal and child malnutrition in a 5- year period developed by the Nutrition Technical Group. The Nutrition Technical Group developed a situation analysis describing the main nutrition problems, policies and programs in Mesoamerica. The situation analysis and a literature review about effective interventions to address malnutrition were conducted to develop a nutrition master plan. The Nutrition Technical Group held various meetings to develop, discuss and validate the master plan. Theory of change identified problems and barriers, the actions to be developed, the changes and impacts expected. A package of interventions is proposed to reduce undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies useful under different epidemiological contexts. The nutrition master plan provides a guideline of best practices that can be used for evidence-informed decision making and the development of national policies and programs to reduce malnutrition.
    Salud publica de Mexico 12/2010; 53:s303-s311. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Women's nutritional status during conception and early pregnancy can influence maternal and infant outcomes. This study examined the efficacy of pre-pregnancy supplementation with iron and multivitamins to reduce the prevalence of anemia during the periconceptional period among rural Tanzanian women and adolescent girls. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in which participants were individually randomized to receive daily oral supplements of folic acid alone, folic acid and iron, or folic acid, iron, and vitamins A, B-complex, C, and E at approximately single recommended dietary allowance (RDA) doses for six months. Rural Rufiji District, Tanzania. Non-pregnant women and adolescent girls aged 15-29 years (n = 802). The study arms were comparable in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, food security, nutritional status, pregnancy history, and compliance with the regimen (p>0.05). In total, 561 participants (70%) completed the study and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Hemoglobin levels were not different across treatments (median: 11.1 g/dL, Q1-Q3: 10.0-12.4 g/dL, p = 0.65). However, compared with the folic acid arm (28%), there was a significant reduction in the risk of hypochromic microcytic anemia in the folic acid and iron arm (17%, RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.90, p = 0.01) and the folic acid, iron, and multivitamin arm (19%, RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45-0.96, p = 0.03). Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to adjust for potential selection bias due to loss to follow-up did not materially change these results. The effect of the regimens was not modified by frequency of household meat consumption, baseline underweight status, parity, breastfeeding status, or level of compliance (in all cases, p for interaction>0.2). Daily oral supplementation with iron and folic acid among women and adolescents prior to pregnancy reduces risk of anemia. The potential benefits of supplementation on the risk of periconceptional anemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes warrant investigation in larger studies. NCT01183572.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(4):e0121552. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121552 · 3.53 Impact Factor