Efficacy of corticosteroids and external beam radiation in the management of moderate to severe thyroid eye disease.
ABSTRACT Thyroid Eye Disease (TED, Graves ophthalmopathy, thyroid ophthalmopathy) is the most common cause of orbital inflammation and proptosis in adults. There is no agreement on its management although corticosteroids and external beam orbital radiation (XRT) have traditionally been believed to provide benefit in active inflammation. Our review of the published literature in English disclosed an overall corticosteroid-mediated treatment response of 66.9% in a total of 834 treated patients who had moderate or severe TED. Intravenous corticosteroids used in repeated weekly pulses were more effective (overall favorable response = 74.6%, n = 177) and had fewer side effects than daily oral corticosteroids (overall favorable response = 55.5%, n = 265). A combination of corticosteroid and radiation therapy seemed to be more effective than corticosteroids alone. Our conclusions are tempered by a notable lack of standardization within and between study designs, treatment protocols, and outcome measures. Accordingly, the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS), American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) and the Orbital Society, in conjunction with Neuro-Ophthalmology Research and Development Consortium (NORDIC), will investigate the design and funding of a multi-center controlled trial.
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ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy has not been yet clarified, and from a therapeutic standpoint Graves' ophthalmopathy remains an enigma. The natural course and effects of different treatment regimens are poorly documented. The mean observation period was 3.23 years (1-8.9 years) for all 196 patients, and 2.85 years (1-8.9 years) for the 81 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. The gender distribution was 77% female and 23% male in patients with Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy, and 81% female and 19% male in those patients without ophthalmopathy (p = 0.57). Seventy per cent of the patients developed Graves' ophthalmopathy within 12 months before or after the onset of the hyperthyroidism. Among the 81 patients with ophthalmopathy 53 (65%) received no therapy or only local protective agents. Twenty-five of these patients improved substantially, 26 did not change, and 2 deteriorated progressively. These results were independent of the severity of the EO (p = 0.42). Among the 11 patients initially treated with systemic corticosteroids 7 improved, 3 did not change, and 1 worsened. Five patients received initially orbital irradiation. Three improved and 2 did not change after radiotherapy. Orbital decompression was performed in 3 patients. Nine patients received a combination treatment. In conclusion, our study of a relatively large patient sample revealed the known epidemiological facts regarding Graves' disease and endocrine ophthalmopathy. The majority of patients needed no therapy or only local protective agents, and 47% improved spontaneously. Systemic corticosteroids and orbital irradiation appear to be equally effective as initial treatment in patients with more severe forms of Graves' ophthalmopathy.Swiss medical weekly: official journal of the Swiss Society of Infectious Diseases, the Swiss Society of Internal Medicine, the Swiss Society of Pneumology 11/2001; 131(41-42):603-9. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Eleven euthyroid patients with severe Graves' eye disease were treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and followed up for six months or more by ophthalmological assessment, orbital computed tomography (CT), photographs, and antibody measurements. Papilloedema resolved in the single patient in whom it was present; visual acuity was abnormal in seven eyes initially and in only one eye after treatment; the intraocular pressure differential, which reflects muscle dysfunction, was initially abnormal in 18 eyes but showed a progressive and distinct improvement; nine patients showed substantial improvement in inflammatory signs. Exophthalmos improved early after treatment, but this improvement was not maintained. Orbital CT showed a pronounced reduction in the bulk of eye muscles after treatment in eight of nine patients. Autoantibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor declined. Adverse effects were trivial. Thus eight patients showed a clear response to intravenous methylprednisolone as judged by ophthalmic assessment and CT scan. The two patients who showed little response and one who had none all had a long history (more than a year) of ophthalmopathy. Results were better than those with oral steroids and adverse effects less. Treatment of Graves' eye disease is more likely to be effective if given early; patients should be referred promptly to specialist centres, where treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone should be considered.BMJ 01/1989; 297(6663):1574-8. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thirteen patients with moderately severe ophthalmopathy due to Graves' disease were treated by steroid therapy, supervoltage orbital radiotherapy, plasmapheresis and thyroxine replacement. All patients complained of chemosis, ocular pain and diplopia. The mean value of proptosis was 21.3 mm. Eleven patients (84.6%) showed some improvement, but the effect was mostly on the symptoms of orbital soft tissue involvement. The effect on proptosis was rather unsatisfactory. In six patients (46.2%) proptosis decreased by 2.3 mm on the average, but they still had more noticeable exophthlamos than patients with Graves' disease without infiltrative ophthalmopathy. For regression of proptosis, radiation therapy was the most beneficial therapeutic regimen in this study, especially in the patients who received the treatment shortly after the beginning of malignant exophthlamos.Endocrinologia japonica 09/1982; 29(4):495-501.