Adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the gallbladder with perineural invasion: revisited.
ABSTRACT We report 9 examples of segmental adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the gallbladder with perineural invasion. Five patients were women and 4 men. Their ages ranged from 49 to 81 years (mean age 64 y). Eight patients had gallbladder calculi. The original pathologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was made in 5 patients and of "adenoma malignum" in one. Six patients are disease-free for 2 to 11 years following cholecystectomy, 1 patient died of unrelated causes and 2 were lost to follow-up. Histologically 2 types of adenomyomatous hyperplasia were recognized. The first one characterized by numerous Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses (RASs) was accompanied by smooth muscle hyperplasia and an expanded subserosal layer containing numerous nerve trunks (6 cases). The second type was characterized by an extensively fibrotic gallbladder wall with numerous RASs but with few or no smooth muscle bundles and an expanded subserosal layer containing abundant nerve-trunks (3 cases). Perineural (7 cases) and intraneural invasion (2 cases) was identified only in the subserosal layer. The lack of p53 reactivity and the very low MIB-1-labeling index provide additional support to the non-neoplastic nature of the lesion. The pseudoinvasive pattern of the RASs, reactive epithelial atypia, and the perineural and intraneural invasion probably contributed to the erroneous diagnosis of adenocarcinoma or "adenoma malignum." The mechanism by which the epithelial structures "invaded" the perineural spaces and the nerves is unclear. We favor the hypothesis that the migration of the benign glandlike structures into the nerves is related to the production of chemotactic factors or signaling substances and the activation of cell receptors.
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ABSTRACT: The frequency of gall bladder lesions in cholecystectomies is not clear. The purpose of the present study is to report the morphologies and frequency of gall bladder diseases and lesions of 540 cholecystectomies in the last 10 years in our pathology laboratory. The age of patients ranged from 18 years to 93 years with a mean of 64.75 ±14.43 years. Male to female ratio was 213:327. Of these, 518 cases (96%) had gall stones. Eight (1.5%) were acute cholecystitis, 508 (94.1%) were chronic cholecystitis, 12 (2.2%) were adenocarcinomas, 1 (0.2%) was cystadenocarcinoma, and 11 (2.0%) were normal gall bladders. The frequency of histological lesions were as follows: acute gangrenous inflammation (8 cases, 1.5%), Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses (RAS) (351 cases, 65%), microliths or inspissated bile in RAS (108 cases, 20%), adenomyomatous changes (16 cases, 3.0 %), focal abscess formations (12 cases, 2.2%), focal xanthogranulomatous changes (15 cases, 2.8%), mucosal ulcers (61 cases, 11.3%), cholesterosis (62 cases, 11%), cholesterol polyp (32 cases, 6%), pyloric gland metaplasia (292 cases, 54%), adenoma (7 cases, 1.3%), xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (5 cases, 1%), invasive adenocarcinoma (12 cases, 2.2%), and cystadenocarcinoma (1 cases, 0.2%). In adenomyomatous changes, the epithelial proliferation was florid in a few cases, and no perineural invasions were seen. In pyloric gland metaplasia, no perineural invasions were recognized. All the 7 cases of adenoma were of intestinal type. In the 12 adenocarcinoma cases, one case arose in RAS without mucosal involvement, and 9 were tubular adenocarcinomas and 3 were papillary adenocarcinomas and 1 was mucinous adenocarcinoma. In the present series, there were no cases of heterotipc tissue, intestinal metaplasia, intraepithelial neoplasm, and other malignancies. These data may provide basic knowledge of the gall bladder pathologies.International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2013; 6(1):91-6. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ducts of Luschka are a developmental abnormality found within the gallbladder fossa in up to 10% of cholecystectomy specimens. They are most often encountered by surgeons when injured during laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy, leading to bile leakage and subsequent peritonitis. Histologically, they are typically composed of lobular aggregates of small ductules lined by bland, cuboidal-to-columnar biliary-type epithelium, associated with centrally located, larger ductules surrounded by concentric fibrosis. We have identified 6 cases of florid Luschka duct proliferation in which the ductules demonstrated irregular growth pattern, loss of characteristic concentric fibrosis, and epithelial atypia that strongly suggested the diagnosis of invasive pancreatobiliary adenocarcinoma or metastatic adenocarcinoma involving the gallbladder serosa. Two of the cases were initially diagnosed as invasive adenocarcinoma, whereas the other 4 were sent for consultation to rule out adenocarcinoma. All cases were associated with marked acute and chronic cholecystitis with mucosal ulceration, cholelithiasis, and thickening of the gallbladder wall. The ducts of Luschka were located within the rim of adherent liver in all 6 cases and the gallbladder serosa in 5 cases. Limited follow-up information was available for all patients with no documentation of progressive disease. Awareness and proper recognition of the anatomic location and histologic features are imperative in distinguishing florid ducts of Luschka from both non-neoplastic conditions and most importantly adenocarcinoma.The American journal of surgical pathology 06/2011; 35(6):883-90. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The gallbladder is one of the most common specimens encountered in surgical pathology laboratories worldwide. A vast majority of these show merely cholelithiasis and chronic cholecystitis, however, a wide variety of benign tumors and tumor-like lesions can occur in the gallbladder and are largely discovered incidentally. Benign tumors of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts are similar, however, the incidences vary by site. The epithelial tumors include adenomas that can be gastric, intestinal or biliary types, and cystadenomas. Mesenchymal tumors are even more rare and identical to their soft tissue counterparts. Of these as a group, the neurogenic lesions are most common. The tumor-like lesions include various types of metaplasia, hyperplasia, heterotopia and chronic cholecystitis-associated lesions. These various benign and tumor-like lesions can mimic malignancy clinically, radiologically and sometimes even microscopically. Awareness of these benign lesions is necessary to avoid a wrong diagnosis of malignancy.Diagnostic Histopathology 08/2010; 16(8):371-379.