Kidney-specific cadherin (Ksp-cad) is a membrane-associated cell adhesion glycoprotein expressed by the distal nephron tubular cells in its later developmental stages. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma are reported to be variably positive for Ksp-cad with some studies suggesting a discriminatory role for Ksp-cad. Immunoreactivity in other tumors with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm including clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinomas needs to be clearly elucidated and its expression in emerging novel and other unusual renal epithelial neoplasm subtypes including tumors with uncertain histogenesis is not yet known. In this study, we performed a detailed immunohistochemical analysis for Ksp-cad in a broad range of 136 renal epithelial neoplasms. Reactivity with Ksp-cad was observed in the following tumors: chromophobe renal cell carcinoma [23/25 (92%), diffuse (>50% of tumor cells)] positivity and membranous characteristically accentuating the "plant cell-like" histomorphology of the typical (clear) type, renal oncocytoma [15/20 (75%), usually diffuse staining with predominantly membranous accentuation], papillary renal cell carcinoma [5/17 (29%) all focal to moderate, eosinophilic type or type 2-3/7 (43%), basophilic type or type 1-2/10 (20%)], Xp11 translocation carcinoma [1/4 (25%), diffuse positivity] and clear cell renal cell carcinoma [6/36 (17%) all focal, clear cell renal cell carcinoma with prominent eosinophilic cells 1/7 (14%)]. Immunoreactivity was higher when evaluating whole histologic sections than with tissue microarrays for both chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (100% vs. 60%) and renal oncocytoma (100% vs. 55%). No immunoreactivity was observed in mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinomas (0/23), high-grade collecting duct carcinomas (of Bellini) (0/3), renal medullary carcinomas (0/2), and urothelial carcinomas (0/6). Our study documents the immunoreactivity of Ksp-cad in the range of contemporarily classified renal epithelial neoplasms. The findings argue against the use of Ksp-cad in differentiating chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytomas and further support their relationship to the distal nephron. Ksp-cad may be helpful in distinguishing these two tumor types from clear cell renal cell carcinoma with prominent eosinophilic cells particularly in cases with limited tissue samples (ie, needle core biopsy). In the similar diagnostic setting, caution must be exercised, however, in differentiating chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma from the eosinophilic variant of papillary renal cell carcinoma as moderate expression of Ksp-cad may be observed in papillary renal cell carcinoma. The histogenesis of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma remains debatable as this tumor does not express Ksp-cad, which is highly expressed normally in the thick ascending loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubules. In conclusion, Ksp-cad is a useful tumor type associated marker for distinguishing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma from the wide range of nonintercalated cell-related adult renal epithelial neoplasms; addition of this marker to a panel comprised of other histologic subtype-associated markers may greatly facilitate histologic subclassification of adult renal epithelial neoplasms.
"Although MT&SCC has only recently been isolated from RCCs, shown to be a distinct form of cancer usually consisting of elongated, small tubules with cuboidal cells, or cords of spindled cells showing mild atypia, variant forms have already been described. [2, 3; 5–9] It does not express kidney-specific cadherin (Ksp-cad), typical of the ascending loop of Henle cells . Ours is a case of a “classic” MT&SCC. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case of a 30-year-old female patient diagnosed with mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MT&SCC) of her left kidney of the basis of an abdominal ultrasound scan performed when nonspecific pain is presented. The histopathology report revealed a classic type of MT&SCC. Photographs of histopathological samples are shown. Nephrectomy was applied as sole treatment. A follow-up of six years confirmed surgery to be a sufficient approach. The discussion presents a review of up to date world literature concerning the histopathological features, prognosis, and treatment of MT&SCC.
Central European Journal of Urology 09/2012; 65(3):164-6. DOI:10.5173/ceju.2012.03.art14
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are a number of definitions of the term “biomarker”. In general, they have in common three components:  that they
are objectively measured indicators of specific anatomic, physiologic, biochemical, or molecular events;  that thay are
associated with normal biological processes or accompany the onset, progression and/or severity of specific pathological or
toxic conditions and  are that they are useful for measuring the progress of injury, disease or the effects of therapeutic
intervention. For example, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) working group, a biomarker is a characteristic
that is objectively measured as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or a pharmacological response
to a therapeutic intervention .
The types of biomarkers and the purposes served vary to some extent depending on the population beng observed. For public
health purposes, the requirements of useful biomarkers to protect from injurious xenobiotic exposure are three-fold: firstly,
to achieve the earliest identification of the potential for health impairment; secondly, to gain insight into the mechanism(s)
responsible for any adverse impact on the health of individuals or specific populations at risk; and thirdly, to help assess
the effects of interventions designed to minimize the short and longterm consequences of the initial injury. Important requirments
for biomarker development are a detailed understanding of biochemical pathways involved in nephrotoxicity, minimal invasiveness
and capacity to screen large atrisk populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant renal tumors constitute 3% of human cancers, although their frequency differs greatly in various areas. Since the fifties, the incidence of renal cancers has been increasing, but at the some time the prognosis has been improving. In particular, in the last years, several new treatment modalities have been introduced, relying on the understanding of renal cancer biology. The identified etiological factors include smoking, increased body mass, dietary factors and chronic renal disease. There are several renal tumor types differing in morphology, molecular genetics and biology. Inactivation of the VHL gene leads to formation of the most frequent form in adults, namely clear cell carcinoma. The VHL gene product, a component of an ubiquitin-ligase complex, regulates expression of several genes. Papillary carcinomas depend mainly on the HGF receptor gene (c-Met) activating mutations. At least two types of papillary carcinomas exist, which have different morphology and prognosis. The molecular biology of chromophobe carcinoma and oncocytoma is poorly understood. Differential diagnosis of these tumors is particularly difficult and may require extensive immunohistochemical and molecular studies. Collecting duct carcinoma and medullary carcinoma are extremely aggressive but rare tumors. Some renal tumors have been described or recognized only relatively recently; these newer entities include multilocular cystic clear cell carcinoma, spindle cell papillary mucinous carcinoma, tubulocystic carcinoma, renal epithelial and stromal tumor, epithelioid and oncocytic angiomyolipoma. Besides histological typing, the prognostic factors include tumor stage, grade and several immunohistochemical and molecular markers that are currently under elaboration. The improved prognosis in renal cancer depends on earlier detection, but also on refinement of therapeutic methods. Small tumors may currently be treated by partial nephrectomy or radiofrequency ablation and larger ones by a laparoscopic approach. All these methods seem to give satisfactory results with low morbidity and mortality rates. Renal carcinoma is notorious for its low sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For several years, immunological treatment with IL-2 and INF-alpha was the only adjuvant therapy method. However, recently several new drugs have been introduced; they act on tyrosine-kinase receptors, VEGF, c-Met or mTOR pathway. With this progress, perfect understanding of renal tumor biology and exact histological diagnosis have become of prime practical importance.
Polish journal of pathology: official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists 02/2008; 59(3):129-76. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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