MRI patterns of atrophy associated with progression to AD in amnestic mild cognitive impairment
ABSTRACT To compare the patterns of gray matter loss in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) who progress to Alzheimer disease (AD) within a fixed clinical follow-up time vs those who remain stable.
Twenty-one subjects with aMCI were identified from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's research program who remained clinically stable for their entire observed clinical course (aMCI-S), where the minimum required follow-up time from MRI to last follow-up assessment was 3 years. These subjects were age- and gender-matched to 42 aMCI subjects who progressed to AD within 18 months of the MRI (aMCI-P). Each subject was then age- and gender-matched to a control subject. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess patterns of gray matter atrophy in the aMCI-P and aMCI-S groups compared to the control group, and compared to each other.
The aMCI-P group showed bilateral loss affecting the medial and inferior temporal lobe, temporoparietal association neocortex, and frontal lobes, compared to controls. The aMCI-S group showed no regions of gray matter loss when compared to controls. When the aMCI-P and aMCI-S groups were compared directly, the aMCI-P group showed greater loss in the medial and inferior temporal lobes, the temporoparietal neocortex, posterior cingulate, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and frontal lobes than the aMCI-S group.
The regions of loss observed in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) who progressed to Alzheimer disease (AD) within 18 months of the MRI are typical of subjects with AD. The lack of gray matter loss in subjects with aMCI who remained clinically stable for their entire observed clinical course is consistent with the notion that patterns of atrophy on MRI at baseline map well onto the subsequent clinical course.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Maria Shiung, May 30, 2015
SourceAvailable from: David Andres Pérez-Martínez
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ABSTRACT: This human study is based on an established cohort of "SuperAgers," 80+-year-old individuals with episodic memory function at a level equal to, or better than, individuals 20-30 years younger. A preliminary investigation using structural brain imaging revealed a region of anterior cingulate cortex that was thicker in SuperAgers compared with healthy 50- to 65-year-olds. Here, we investigated the in vivo structural features of cingulate cortex in a larger sample of SuperAgers and conducted a histologic analysis of this region in postmortem specimens. A region-of-interest MRI structural analysis found cingulate cortex to be thinner in cognitively average 80+ year olds (n = 21) than in the healthy middle-aged group (n = 18). A region of the anterior cingulate cortex in the right hemisphere displayed greater thickness in SuperAgers (n = 31) compared with cognitively average 80+ year olds and also to the much younger healthy 50-60 year olds (p < 0.01). Postmortem investigations were conducted in the cingulate cortex in five SuperAgers, five cognitively average elderly individuals, and five individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Compared with other subject groups, SuperAgers showed a lower frequency of Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary tangles (p < 0.05). There were no differences in total neuronal size or count between subject groups. Interestingly, relative to total neuronal packing density, there was a higher density of von Economo neurons (p < 0.05), particularly in anterior cingulate regions of SuperAgers. These findings suggest that reduced vulnerability to the age-related emergence of Alzheimer pathology and higher von Economo neuron density in anterior cingulate cortex may represent biological correlates of high memory capacity in advanced old age. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351781-11$15.00/0.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 01/2015; 35(4):1781-91. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2998-14.2015 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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