Rodent intestinal folate transporters (SLC46A1): secondary structure, functional properties, and response to dietary folate restriction.
ABSTRACT This laboratory recently identified a human gene that encodes a novel folate transporter [Homo sapiens proton-coupled folate transporter (HsPCFT); SLC46A1] required for intestinal folate absorption. This study focused on mouse (Mus musculus) PCFT (MmPCFT) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) PCFT (RnPCFT) and addresses their secondary structure, specificity, tissue expression, and regulation by dietary folates. Both rodent PCFT proteins traffic to the cell membrane with the NH(2)- and COOH-termini accessible to antibodies targeted to these domains only in permeabilized HeLa cells. This, together with computer-based topological analyses, is consistent with a model in which rodent PCFT proteins likely contain 12 transmembrane domains. Transport of [(3)H]folates was optimal at pH 5.5 and decreased with increasing pH due to an increase in K(m) and a decrease in V(max). At pH 7.0, folic acid and methotrexate influx was negligible, but there was residual (6S)5-methyltetrahydrofolate transport. Uptake of folates in PCFT-injected Xenopus oocytes was electrogenic and pH dependent. Folic acid influx K(m) values of MmPCFT and RnPCFT, assessed electrophysiologically, were 0.7 and 0.3 microM at pH 5.5 and 1.1 and 0.8 microM at pH 6.5, respectively. Rodent PCFTs were highly specific for monoglutamyl but not polyglutamyl methotrexate. MmPCFT mRNA was highly expressed in the duodenum, proximal jejunum, liver, and kidney with lesser expression in the brain and other tissues. MmPCFT protein was localized to the apical brush-border membrane of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. MmPCFT mRNA levels increased approximately 13-fold in the proximal small intestine in mice fed a folate-deficient vesus folate-replete diet, consistent with the critical role that PCFT plays in intestinal folate absorption.
- SourceAvailable from: jasn.asnjournals.org[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Renal tubular reabsorption of filtered folate is essential for the conservation and normal homeostasis of this important vitamin. Different molecular mechanisms have been implicated in epithelial folate transport, including folate receptors. Defective expression or antibody inactivation of these is associated with embryonic defects also correlated with low folate intake; however, their contribution to renal tubular folate reabsorption has not been established. With the use of targeted inactivation of the folate binding protein 1 (folbp1) and folate binding protein 2 (folbp2) genes in mice, the role of folate receptors in renal epithelial folate reabsorption was evaluated during low and normal folate intake. Inactivation of folbp1 was associated with (1) loss of (3)H-folic acid binding to crude kidney membranes, (2) increase in renal folate clearance, and (3) increase in urinary excretion and decrease in renal uptake of injected (3)H-methyltetrahydrofolate. No changes in renal folate handling were observed as a result of folbp2 inactivation. Thus, folbp1 is essential for normal renal tubular folate reabsorption, preventing excessive urinary folate loss. Folbp1 is heavily expressed in choroid plexus, yolk sac, and placenta, supporting a role of folbp1 in folate transport in other tissues. The greatest significance of folbp1 for renal folate uptake was observed at conditions of low folate intake, providing a possible explanation for the ability of folate supplementation to prevent developmental defects associated with folbp1 inactivation.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2005; 16(3):608-15. · 8.99 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Construction of a GABAA receptor homology model based on the acetylcholine (ACh) receptor structure is complicated by the low sequence similarity between GABAA and ACh M3 transmembrane segments that creates significant uncertainty in their alignment. We determined the orientation of the GABAA M2 and M3 transmembrane segments using disulfide cross-linking. The M2 residues alpha1M266 (11') and alpha1T267 (12') were mutated to cysteine in either wild type or single M3 cysteine mutant (alpha1V297C, alpha1A300C to alpha1A305C) backgrounds. We assayed spontaneous and induced disulfide bond formation. Reduction with DTT significantly potentiated GABA-induced currents in alpha1T267C-L301C and alpha1T267C-F304C. Copper phenanthroline-induced oxidation inhibited GABA-induced currents in these mutants and in alpha1T267C-A305C. Intrasubunit disulfide bonds formed between these Cys pairs, implying that the alpha-carbon separation was at most 5.6 A. The reactive alpha1M3 residues (L301, F304, A305) lie on the same face of an alpha-helix. The unresponsive ones (A300, I302, E303) lie on the opposite face. In the resting state, the reactive side of alpha1M3 faces M2-alpha1T267. In conjunction with the ACh structure, our data indicate that alignment of GABAA and ACh M3 requires a single gap in the GABAA M2-M3 loop. In the presence of GABA, oxidation of alpha1T267C-L301C and alpha1T267C-F304C had no effect, but oxidation of alpha1T267C-A305C caused a significant increase in spontaneous channel opening. We infer that, as the channel opens, the distance and/or orientation between M2-alpha1T267 and M3-alpha1A305 changes such that the disulfide bond stabilizes the open state. This begins to define the conformational motion that M2 undergoes during channel opening.Journal of Neuroscience 05/2006; 26(17):4492-9. · 6.91 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Obtaining high quality multiple alignments is crucial for a range of sequence analysis tasks. A common strategy is to align the sequences several times, varying the program or parameters until the best alignment according to manual inspection by human experts is found. Ideally, this should be assisted by an automatic assessment of the alignment quality. Our web-site http://msa.cgb.ki.se allows users to perform all these steps: Kalign to align sequences, Kalignvu to view and verify the resulting alignments and Mumsa to assess the quality. Due to the computational efficiency of Kalign we can allow users to submit hundreds of sequences to be aligned and still guarantee fast response times. All servers are freely accessible and the underlying software can be freely downloaded for local use.Nucleic Acids Research 08/2006; 34(Web Server issue):W596-9. · 8.28 Impact Factor