Dietary thyroid hormone replacement ameliorates hearing deficits in hypothyroid mice.
ABSTRACT Thyroid hormone (TH) insufficiency causes variable hearing impairment and mental deficiency in humans. Rodents lacking TH have congenital hearing deficiency that has been attributed to physiologic, morphologic, and developmental abnormalities of the auditory system. We examined four genetically defined strains of hypothyroid mice for development of hearing and response to TH replacement initiated during late gestation and continued through six weeks of age. Auditory brain stem response studies showed variable hearing impairment in homozygous mutants of each strain at three weeks of age relative to normal littermates. Mutants from three of the strains still had hearing deficiencies at six weeks of age. TH-enriched diet significantly improved hearing in three-week-old mutants of each strain relative to untreated mutants. Differences in the level of hearing impairment between the Prop1df and Pit1dw mutants, which have defects in the same developmental pathway, were determined to be due to genetic background modifier genes. Further physiologic and morphologic studies in the Cgatm1Sac strain indicated that poor hearing was due to cochlear defects. We conclude that TH supplement administered during the critical period of hearing development in mice can prevent deafness associated with congenital hypothyroidism of heterogeneous genetic etiology.
Article: Diaphanous homolog 3 (Diap3) Overexpression Causes Progressive Hearing Loss and Inner Hair Cell Defects in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Human Deafness.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that a mutation in the 5' untranslated region of Diaphanous homolog 3 (DIAPH3) results in 2 to 3-fold overexpression of the gene, leading to a form of delayed onset, progressive human deafness known as AUNA1 (auditory neuropathy, nonsyndromic, autosomal dominant, 1). To investigate the mechanism of deafness, we generated two lines of transgenic mice overexpressing Diap3, the murine ortholog of DIAPH3, on an FVB/NJ background. Line 771 exhibits a relatively mild 20 dB hearing loss at 12 kHz at 4 and 8 weeks of age, progressing to 40 dB and 60 dB losses at 16 and 24 weeks, respectively, at 12 and 24 kHz. Line 924 shows no hearing loss at 4 or 8 weeks, but manifests 35 and 50 dB threshold shifts at 16 and 24 weeks, respectively, at both 12 and 24 kHz. Notably, mice from the two transgenic lines retain distortion product otoacoustic emissions, indicative of normal cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) function despite elevation of auditory thresholds. Scanning electron microscopy of the organ of Corti demonstrates striking anomalies of the inner hair cell (IHC) stereocilia, while OHCs are essentially intact. Over time, IHCs of both lines develop elongated stereocilia that appear fused with neighboring stereocilia, in parallel to the time course of hearing loss in each line. Furthermore, we observe significant reduction in the number of IHC ribbon synapses over 24 weeks in both lines, although this reduction does not correlate temporally with onset and progression of hearing loss or stereociliary anomalies. In summary, overexpression of wild-type Diap3 in two lines of transgenic mice results in hearing loss that recapitulates human AUNA1 deafness. These findings suggest an essential role of Diap3 in regulating assembly and/or maintenance of actin filaments in IHC stereocilia, as well as a potential role at the IHC ribbon synapse.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56520. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Alström Syndrome protein ALMS1 localizes to basal bodies of cochlear hair cells and regulates cilium-dependent planar cell polarity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alström Syndrome is a life-threatening disease characterized primarily by numerous metabolic abnormalities, retinal degeneration, cardiomyopathy, kidney and liver disease, and sensorineural hearing loss. The cellular localization of the affected protein, ALMS1, has suggested roles in ciliary function and/or ciliogenesis. We have investigated the role of ALMS1 in the cochlea and the pathogenesis of hearing loss in Alström Syndrome. In neonatal rat organ of Corti, ALMS1 was localized to the basal bodies of hair cells and supporting cells. ALMS1 was also evident at the basal bodies of differentiating fibrocytes and marginal cells in the lateral wall. Centriolar ALMS1 expression was retained into maturity. In Alms1-disrupted mice, which recapitulate the neurosensory deficits of human Alström Syndrome, cochleae displayed several cyto-architectural defects including abnormalities in the shape and orientation of hair cell stereociliary bundles. Developing hair cells were ciliated, suggesting that ciliogenesis was largely normal. In adult mice, in addition to bundle abnormalities, there was an accelerated loss of outer hair cells and the progressive appearance of large lesions in stria vascularis. Although the mice progressively lost distortion product otoacoustic emissions, suggesting defects in outer hair cell amplification, their endocochlear potentials were normal, indicating the strial atrophy did not affect its function. These results identify previously unrecognized cochlear histopathologies associated with this ciliopathy that (i) implicate ALMS1 in planar cell polarity signaling and (ii) suggest that the loss of outer hair cells causes the majority of the hearing loss in Alström Syndrome.Human Molecular Genetics 11/2010; 20(3):466-81. · 7.64 Impact Factor