Article

Formation, stability, and mobility of one-dimensional lipid bilayers on polysilicon nanowires.

Chemistry, Materials, and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA.
Nano Letters (Impact Factor: 13.03). 12/2007; 7(11):3355-9. DOI: 10.1021/nl071641w
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Curved lipid membranes are ubiquitous in living systems and play an important role in many biological processes. To understand how curvature and lipid composition affect membrane formation and fluidity, we have assembled and studied mixed 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) supported lipid bilayers on amorphous silicon nanowires grown around carbon nanotube cores with controlled wire diameters ranging from 20 to 200 nm. We found that lipid vesicles fused onto nanowire substrates and formed continuous bilayers for all DOPC-DOPE mixtures tested (with the DOPE content of up to 30%). Our measurements demonstrate that nanowire-supported bilayers are mobile, exhibit fast recovery after photobleaching, and have a low concentration of defects. Lipid diffusion coefficients in these high-curvature tubular membranes are comparable to the values reported for flat supported bilayers and increase slightly with decreasing nanowire diameter. A free space diffusion model adequately describes the effect of bilayer curvature on the lipid mobility for nanowire substrates with diameters greater than 50 nm, but shows significant deviations from the experimental values for smaller diameter nanowires.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
83 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Encapsulation of drugs within nanocarriers that selectively target malignant cells promises to mitigate side effects of conventional chemotherapy and to enable delivery of the unique drug combinations needed for personalized medicine. To realize this potential, however, targeted nanocarriers must simultaneously overcome multiple challenges, including specificity, stability and a high capacity for disparate cargos. Here we report porous nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (protocells) that synergistically combine properties of liposomes and nanoporous particles. Protocells modified with a targeting peptide that binds to human hepatocellular carcinoma exhibit a 10,000-fold greater affinity for human hepatocellular carcinoma than for hepatocytes, endothelial cells or immune cells. Furthermore, protocells can be loaded with combinations of therapeutic (drugs, small interfering RNA and toxins) and diagnostic (quantum dots) agents and modified to promote endosomal escape and nuclear accumulation of selected cargos. The enormous capacity of the high-surface-area nanoporous core combined with the enhanced targeting efficacy enabled by the fluid supported lipid bilayer enable a single protocell loaded with a drug cocktail to kill a drug-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma cell, representing a 10(6)-fold improvement over comparable liposomes.
    Nature Material 05/2011; 10(5):389-97. · 35.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The miniaturization of bioelectronic intracellular probes with a wide dynamic frequency range can open up opportunities to study biological structures inaccessible by existing methods in a minimally invasive manner. Here, we report the design, fabrication, and demonstration of intracellular bioelectronic devices with probe sizes less than 10 nm. The devices are based on a nanowire-nanotube heterostructure in which a nanowire field-effect transistor detector is synthetically integrated with a nanotube cellular probe. Sub-10-nm nanotube probes were realized by a two-step selective etching approach that reduces the diameter of the nanotube free-end while maintaining a larger diameter at the nanowire detector necessary for mechanical strength and electrical sensitivity. Quasi-static water-gate measurements demonstrated selective device response to solution inside the nanotube, and pulsed measurements together with numerical simulations confirmed the capability to record fast electrophysiological signals. Systematic studies of the probe bandwidth in different ionic concentration solutions revealed the underlying mechanism governing the time response. In addition, the bandwidth effect of phospholipid coatings, which are important for intracellular recording, was investigated and modeled. The robustness of these sub-10-nm bioelectronics probes for intracellular interrogation was verified by optical imaging and recording the transmembrane resting potential of HL-1 cells. These ultrasmall bioelectronic probes enable direct detection of cellular electrical activity with highest spatial resolution achieved to date, and with further integration into larger chip arrays could provide a unique platform for ultra-high-resolution mapping of activity in neural networks and other systems.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2014; 111(4):1259-64. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Encapsulation of drugs within nanocarriers that selectively target malignant cells promises to mitigate side effects of conventional chemotherapy and to enable delivery of the unique drug combinations needed for personalized medicine. To realize this potential, however, targeted nanocarriers must simultaneously overcome multiple challenges, including specificity, stability and a high capacity for disparate cargos. Here we report porous nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (protocells) that synergistically combine properties of liposomes and nanoporous particles. Protocells modified with a targeting peptide that binds to human hepatocellular carcinoma exhibit a 10,000-fold greater affinity for human hepatocellular carcinoma than for hepatocytes, endothelial cells or immune cells. Furthermore, protocells can be loaded with combinations of therapeutic (drugs, small interfering RNA and toxins) and diagnostic (quantum dots) agents and modified to promote endosomal escape and nuclear accumulation of selected cargos. The enormous capacity of the high-surface-area nanoporous core combined with the enhanced targeting efficacy enabled by the fluid supported lipid bilayer enable a single protocell loaded with a drug cocktail to kill a drug-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma cell, representing a 106-fold improvement over comparable liposomes.
    Nature Material 06/2011; 10(6):476. · 35.75 Impact Factor