Mindfulness-based stress reduction is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pilot study

Department of Emergency Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Alternative therapies in health and medicine (Impact Factor: 1.24). 11/2006; 13(5):36-8.
Source: PubMed


Psychological distress is linked with impaired glycemic control among diabetics.
Estimate changes in glycemic control, weight, blood pressure, and stress-related psychological symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes participating in a standard Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program.
Prospective, observational study.
Academic health center.
Adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Participation in MBSR program for heterogeneous patient population. Diet and exercise regimens held constant.
Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HA1c), blood pressure, body weight, and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (anxiety, depression, somatization, and general psychological distress scores).
Eleven of 14 patients completed the intervention. At 1 month follow-up, HA1c was reduced by 0.48% (P = .03), and mean arterial pressure was reduced by 6 mmHg (P = .009). Body weight did not change. A decrease in measures of depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress was observed.

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    • "Even though a consensus about an unequivocal operational definition of mindfulness is lacking so far [12] [13], one of most commonly employed definitions of mindfulness was provided by Jon Kabat-Zinn who suggests that mindfulness could be described as a moment to moment awareness that is cultivated by purposefully paying attention to the present experience, with a non-judgmental attitude [14]. Interventions utilizing mindfulness techniques have shown efficacy for treating a variety of mental disorders and in coping with physical or medical conditions, including, among others, chronic pain [15], fatigue [16], stress [17] [18], cancer [19], heart disease [20], type 2 diabetes [21], psoriasis [22], and insomnia [23]. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) [24] is a well-established mindfulness training that has shown to reduce stress, depression, and anxiety [25] [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) studies are being conducted with nonclinical populations, but very little is known about their effectiveness. To evaluate the efficacy, mechanisms of actions, and moderators of MBSR for nonclinical populations. A systematic review of studies published in English journals in Medline, CINAHL or Alt HealthWatch from the first available date until September 19, 2014. Any quantitative study that used MBSR as an intervention, that was conducted with healthy adults, and that investigated stress or anxiety. A total of 29 studies (n=2668) were included. Effect-size estimates suggested that MBSR is moderately effective in pre-post analyses (n=26; Hedge's g=.55; 95% CI [.44, .66], p<.00001) and in between group analyses (n=18; Hedge's g=.53; 95% CI [.41, .64], p<.00001). The obtained results were maintained at an average of 19weeks of follow-up. Results suggested large effects on stress, moderate effects on anxiety, depression, distress, and quality of life, and small effects on burnout. When combined, changes in mindfulness and compassion measures correlated with changes in clinical measures at post-treatment and at follow-up. However, heterogeneity was high, probably due to differences in the study design, the implemented protocol, and the assessed outcomes. MBSR is moderately effective in reducing stress, depression, anxiety and distress and in ameliorating the quality of life of healthy individuals; however, more research is warranted to identify the most effective elements of MBSR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Psychosomatic Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.03.009 · 2.74 Impact Factor
    • "This effect appears to be mediated by changes in brain activity and structure; in the autonomic nervous system (Kubota et al., 2001) and the hypothalamic– pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, i.e. serum cortisol reduction (Turakitwanakan et al., 2013); amelioration of poor sleep quality (Brand et al. 2012); brain temporal transcriptome changes (Bhasin et al., 2013); regulation of emotion (Robins et al., 2012) and default mode network connectivity (Brewer et al., 2011); increases in regional grey matter (Holzel et al., 2011); and enhanced focusing, sensory processing and reflective sensory experience awareness (Kilpatrick et al., 2011). Mindfulness has also been associated with improved glycemic control and decrease in depression, anxiety and general psychological distress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (Rosenzweig et al., 2007). The above-mentioned facts suggest that the application of mindfulness techniques may have beneficial psychological effects on patients with PCOS. "
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    ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder with a significant psychological burden throughout the life course of affected women. Thus, use of mindful awareness may be beneficial as an adjunct to conventional medical management of women with PCOS. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted at the Evgenideion Hospital of the Athens University Medical School to explore the impact of an 8-week mindfulness stress management program on measures of depression, anxiety and stress as well as on the quality of life in reproductive age women with PCOS. Twenty-three and fifteen women with PCOS were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group, respectively. All participants were administered DASS21, PSS-14, PCOSQ, Daily Life and General Life Satisfaction Questionnaires and provided three-timed daily samples of salivary cortisol, before and after the intervention. Intervention group participants were provided with the Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire at the day of enrolment, to check for possible placebo effect on the outcome. Post-intervention, between-group results revealed statistically significant reductions in stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as in salivary cortisol concentrations, along with an increase in Life Satisfaction and Quality of Life scores in the intervention group only. There was no significant ‘placebo’ effect on the outcome measures. Mindfulness techniques seem promising in ameliorating stress, anxiety, depression and the quality of life in women with PCOS and could be used as an adjunct method to the conventional management of these women. Read More:
    Stress 10/2014; DOI:10.3109/10253890.2014.974030 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    • "Long-term meditation practice has also been associated with cortical thickening and increased gray matter volume in brain regions involved in attentional performance, sensory processing, and interoception (103, 107, 108), apparently offsetting typical age-related cortical thinning and gray matter loss (108). In addition, recent research suggests that meditation programs can enhance immune response (109) and clinical outcomes (82, 85), and reduce blood pressure (85, 90, 100, 110), insulin resistance and glucose intolerance (97, 111), oxidative stress (84, 112), inflammation (93), and other related risk indices (84, 85). While research in cognitively impaired populations remains limited, findings from previous observational studies (113, 114) and two recent small clinical trials (90, 91, 95, 105) suggest that meditation practice may reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and blood pressure; improve cognition; promote beneficial changes in brain structure and function; and improve health outcomes in adults with memory disorders. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive, brain disorder that affects at least 5.3 million Americans at an estimated cost of $148 billion, figures that are expected to rise steeply in coming years. Despite decades of research, there is still no cure for AD, and effective therapies for preventing or slowing progression of cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive. Although the etiology of AD remains uncertain, chronic stress, sleep deficits, and mood disturbance, conditions common in those with cognitive impairment, have been prospectively linked to the development and progression of both chronic illness and memory loss and are significant predictors of AD. Therapies such as meditation that specifically target these risk factors may thus hold promise for slowing and possibly preventing cognitive decline in those at risk. In this study, we briefly review the existing evidence regarding the potential utility of meditation as a therapeutic intervention for those with and at risk for AD, discuss possible mechanisms underlying the observed benefits of meditation, and outline directions for future research.
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 04/2014; 5:40. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00040
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