Mindfulness-based stress reduction is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pilot study

Department of Emergency Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Alternative therapies in health and medicine (Impact Factor: 1.24). 11/2006; 13(5):36-8.
Source: PubMed


Psychological distress is linked with impaired glycemic control among diabetics.
Estimate changes in glycemic control, weight, blood pressure, and stress-related psychological symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes participating in a standard Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program.
Prospective, observational study.
Academic health center.
Adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Participation in MBSR program for heterogeneous patient population. Diet and exercise regimens held constant.
Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HA1c), blood pressure, body weight, and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (anxiety, depression, somatization, and general psychological distress scores).
Eleven of 14 patients completed the intervention. At 1 month follow-up, HA1c was reduced by 0.48% (P = .03), and mean arterial pressure was reduced by 6 mmHg (P = .009). Body weight did not change. A decrease in measures of depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress was observed.

Download full-text


Available from: Jeffrey Greeson, Sep 29, 2015
29 Reads
  • Source
    • "Even though a consensus about an unequivocal operational definition of mindfulness is lacking so far [12] [13], one of most commonly employed definitions of mindfulness was provided by Jon Kabat-Zinn who suggests that mindfulness could be described as a moment to moment awareness that is cultivated by purposefully paying attention to the present experience, with a non-judgmental attitude [14]. Interventions utilizing mindfulness techniques have shown efficacy for treating a variety of mental disorders and in coping with physical or medical conditions, including, among others, chronic pain [15], fatigue [16], stress [17] [18], cancer [19], heart disease [20], type 2 diabetes [21], psoriasis [22], and insomnia [23]. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) [24] is a well-established mindfulness training that has shown to reduce stress, depression, and anxiety [25] [26]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) studies are being conducted with nonclinical populations, but very little is known about their effectiveness. To evaluate the efficacy, mechanisms of actions, and moderators of MBSR for nonclinical populations. A systematic review of studies published in English journals in Medline, CINAHL or Alt HealthWatch from the first available date until September 19, 2014. Any quantitative study that used MBSR as an intervention, that was conducted with healthy adults, and that investigated stress or anxiety. A total of 29 studies (n=2668) were included. Effect-size estimates suggested that MBSR is moderately effective in pre-post analyses (n=26; Hedge's g=.55; 95% CI [.44, .66], p<.00001) and in between group analyses (n=18; Hedge's g=.53; 95% CI [.41, .64], p<.00001). The obtained results were maintained at an average of 19weeks of follow-up. Results suggested large effects on stress, moderate effects on anxiety, depression, distress, and quality of life, and small effects on burnout. When combined, changes in mindfulness and compassion measures correlated with changes in clinical measures at post-treatment and at follow-up. However, heterogeneity was high, probably due to differences in the study design, the implemented protocol, and the assessed outcomes. MBSR is moderately effective in reducing stress, depression, anxiety and distress and in ameliorating the quality of life of healthy individuals; however, more research is warranted to identify the most effective elements of MBSR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Psychosomatic Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.03.009 · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Long-term meditation practice has also been associated with cortical thickening and increased gray matter volume in brain regions involved in attentional performance, sensory processing, and interoception (103, 107, 108), apparently offsetting typical age-related cortical thinning and gray matter loss (108). In addition, recent research suggests that meditation programs can enhance immune response (109) and clinical outcomes (82, 85), and reduce blood pressure (85, 90, 100, 110), insulin resistance and glucose intolerance (97, 111), oxidative stress (84, 112), inflammation (93), and other related risk indices (84, 85). While research in cognitively impaired populations remains limited, findings from previous observational studies (113, 114) and two recent small clinical trials (90, 91, 95, 105) suggest that meditation practice may reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and blood pressure; improve cognition; promote beneficial changes in brain structure and function; and improve health outcomes in adults with memory disorders. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive, brain disorder that affects at least 5.3 million Americans at an estimated cost of $148 billion, figures that are expected to rise steeply in coming years. Despite decades of research, there is still no cure for AD, and effective therapies for preventing or slowing progression of cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive. Although the etiology of AD remains uncertain, chronic stress, sleep deficits, and mood disturbance, conditions common in those with cognitive impairment, have been prospectively linked to the development and progression of both chronic illness and memory loss and are significant predictors of AD. Therapies such as meditation that specifically target these risk factors may thus hold promise for slowing and possibly preventing cognitive decline in those at risk. In this study, we briefly review the existing evidence regarding the potential utility of meditation as a therapeutic intervention for those with and at risk for AD, discuss possible mechanisms underlying the observed benefits of meditation, and outline directions for future research.
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 04/2014; 5:40. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00040
  • Source
    • "L. Shapiro, Schwartz, & Santerre, 2005). Some of the study samples were small (Davis, Fleming, Bonus, & Baker, 2007; Astin, 1997; Cohen-Katz et al., 2005; Goldin & Gross, 2010; Rosenzweig et al., 2007), some did not have an appropriately matched control group or no-treatment group (Tacón et al., 2003; Carlson & Garland, 2005; Beddoe & Murphy, 2004), and most did not follow participants after the program ended. Additionally, because MBSR is a therapeutic package, the research is not capable of assessing the impact of each of its components on its own. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The literature on mindfulness has been dominated by the two leading schools of thought: one advanced by Langer and her colleagues; the other developed by Kabat-Zinn and his associates. Curiously, the two strands of research have been running in parallel lines for more than 30 years, scarcely addressing each others’ work, and with almost no attempt to clarify the relationship between them. In view of this gap, this article sought to systematically compare and contrast the two lines of research. The comparison between the two schools of thought suggests that although there are some similarities in their definitions of mindfulness, they differ in several core aspects: their philosophies, the components of their constructs, their goals, their theoretical scope, their measurement tools, their conceptual focus, their target audiences, the interventions they employ, the mechanisms underlying these interventions, and the outcomes of their interventions. However, the analysis also revealed that self-regulation is a core mechanism in both perspectives, which seems to mediate the impact of their interventions. In view of the differences between the two strands of research, we propose that they be given different titles that capture their prime features. We suggest “creative mindfulness” for Langer and her colleagues’ scholarship, and “meditative mindfulness” for Kabat-Zinn and his associates’ scholarly work.
    Review of General Psychology 10/2013; 17(4):453-466. DOI:10.1037/a0035212 · 1.78 Impact Factor
Show more