Carotid atherosclerosis is a stronger predictor of myocardial infarction in women than in men: A 6-year follow-up study of 6226 persons: The Tromso study
ABSTRACT Ultrasound of carotid arteries provides measures of intima media thickness (IMT) and plaque, both widely used as surrogate measures of cardiovascular disease. Although IMT and plaques are highly intercorrelated, the relationship between carotid plaque and IMT and cardiovascular disease has been conflicting. In this prospective, population-based study, we measured carotid IMT, total plaque area, and plaque echogenicity as predictors for first-ever myocardial infarction (MI).
IMT, total plaque area, and plaque echogenicity were measured in 6226 men and women aged 25 to 84 years with no previous MI. The subjects were followed for 6 years and incident MI was registered.
During follow-up, MI occurred in 6.6% of men and 3.0% of women. The adjusted relative risk (RR; 95% CI) between the highest plaque area tertile versus no plaque was 1.56 (1.04 to 2.36) in men and 3.95 (2.16 to 7.19) in women. In women, there was a significant trend toward a higher MI risk with more echolucent plaque. The adjusted RR (95% CI) in the highest versus lowest IMT quartile was 1.73 (0.98 to 3.06) in men and 2.86 (1.07 to 7.65) in women. When we excluded bulb IMT from analyses, IMT did not predict MI in either sex.
In a general population, carotid plaque area was a stronger predictor of first-ever MI than was IMT. Carotid atherosclerosis was a stronger risk factor for MI in women than in men. In women, the risk of MI increased with plaque echolucency.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Tom Wilsgaard, May 29, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Reducing the exposure to risk factors for the prevention of cardio-cerebral vascular disease is a crucial issue. Few reports have described practical interventions for preventing cardiovascular disease in different genders and age groups, particularly detailed and specific cutpoint-based prevention strategies.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e111769. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111769 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), which is a good predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, among individuals with MetS, direct comparative data regarding the utility of the apoB/apoAΙ ratio and the non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio to diagnose carotid atherosclerosis are scarce, particularly in Chinese populations. We aimed to determine the relationship between the apoB/apoAΙ ratio and the non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio and carotid atherosclerosis among Chinese individuals with MetS. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 5822 Chinese participants who underwent a routine health screening examination. Lipid profiles, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, CRP, apoB, apoAΙ and CIMT were measured. Results We observed that among Chinese individuals with MetS, men (53.95 ± 0.58 ys) developed carotid atherosclerosis at a younger age than women (58.47 ± 1.17 ys) (P < 0.001). Both the apoB/apoAΙ ratio and the non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio positively correlated with carotid atherosclerosis among Chinese individuals with MetS, particularly among women. Meanwhile, CIMT increased progressively across the quartiles of the non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio (P for trend, < 0.05). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the AUC of the apoB/apoAΙ ratio (0.561) was higher than that of the non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio (0.522) in men (P < 0.05) and the AUC of the apoB/apoAΙ ratio (0.640) was lower than that of the non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio (0.695) in women (P < 0.05). Among Chinese individuals with MetS, the AUC of the non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio was more prominent among women compared with men (P < 0.05). Conclusion Our findings indicate that among individuals with MetS, Chinese men develop carotid atherosclerosis at a much younger age than women. There were no significant differences between the apoB/apoAΙ ratio and the non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio for the prediction of carotid atherosclerosis among Chinese individuals with MetS. Among Chinese individuals with MetS, the utility of the non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio was found to be greater among women than among men.Lipids in Health and Disease 04/2015; 14(1). DOI:10.1186/s12944-015-0023-4 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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