Ca2+-dependent mobility of vesicles capturing anti-VGLUT1 antibodies.
ABSTRACT Several aspects of secretory vesicle cycle have been studied in the past, but vesicle trafficking in relation to the fusion site is less well understood. In particular, the mobility of recaptured vesicles that traffic back toward the central cytoplasm is still poorly defined. We exposed astrocytes to antibodies against the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), a marker of glutamatergic vesicles, to fluorescently label vesicles undergoing Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis and examined their number, fluorescence intensity, and mobility by confocal microscopy. In nonstimulated cells, immunolabeling revealed discrete fluorescent puncta, indicating that VGLUT1 vesicles, which are approximately 50 nm in diameter, cycle slowly between the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. When the cytosolic Ca(2+) level was raised with ionomycin, the number and fluorescence intensity of the puncta increased, likely because the VGLUT1 epitopes were more accessible to the extracellularly applied antibodies following Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis. In nonstimulated cells, the mobility of labeled vesicles was limited. In stimulated cells, many vesicles exhibited directional mobility that was abolished by cytoskeleton-disrupting agents, indicating dependence on intact cytoskeleton. Our findings show that postfusion vesicle mobility is regulated and may likely play a role in synaptic vesicle cycle, and also more generally in the genesis and removal of endocytic vesicles.
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ABSTRACT: Exocytic transmitter release is regulated by the SNARE complex, which contains a vesicular protein, synaptobrevin2 (Sb2). However, Sb2 vesicular arrangement is unclear. Here we use super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to study the prevalence and distribution of endogenous and exogenous Sb2 in single vesicles of astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain. We tag Sb2 protein at C- and N termini with a pair of fluorophores, which allows us to determine the Sb2 length and geometry. To estimate total number of Sb2 proteins per vesicle and the quantity necessary for the formation of fusion pores, we treat cells with ATP to stimulate Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis, increase intracellular alkalinity to enhance the fluorescence presentation of yellow-shifted pHluorin (YpH), appended to the vesicle lumen domain of Sb2, and perform photobleaching of YpH fluorophores. Fluorescence intensity analysis reveals that the total number of endogenous Sb2 units or molecules per vesicle is ≤25.Nature Communications 05/2014; 5:3780. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes one of the most dangerous human neuroinfections in Europe and Asia. To infect neurons it must cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), and presumably also cells adjacent to the BBB, such as astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell type. However, the knowledge about the viral infection of glial cells is fragmental. Here we studied whether TBEV infects rat astrocytes. Rats belong to an animal group serving as a TBEV amplifying host. We employed high resolution quantitative fluorescence microscopy to investigate cell entry and cytoplasmic mobility of TBEV particles along with the effect on the cell cytoskeleton and cell survival. We report that infection of astrocytes with TBEV increases with time of exposure to TBEV and that with post-infection time TBEV particles gained higher mobility. After several days of infection actin cytoskeleton was affected, but cell survival was unchanged, indicating that rat astrocytes resist TBEV-mediated cell death, as reported for other mammalian cells. Therefore, astrocytes may present an important pool of dormant TBEV infections and a new target for therapeutic intervention.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86219. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The release of neuromodulators, called gliotransmitters, by astrocytes is proposed to modulate neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity, and thereby cognitive functions; but they are also proposed to have a role in diverse neurological disorders. Two main routes have been proposed to ensure gliotransmitter release: non-exocytotic release from cytosolic pools through plasma membrane proteins, and Ca2+-regulated exocytosis through the fusion of gliotransmitter-storing secretory organelles. Regulated Ca2+-dependent glial exocytosis has received much attention and is appealing since its existence endows astrocytes with some of the basic properties thought to be exclusive to neurons and neuroendocrine cells. The present review summarizes recent findings regarding the exocytotic mechanisms underlying the release of two excitatory amino acids, L-glutamate and D-serine.Biochemical Society Transactions 12/2013; 41(6):1557-1561. · 2.59 Impact Factor