Improving the Education of Children Living in Poverty

Harvard Graduate School of Education, USA.
The Future of Children (Impact Factor: 1.98). 02/2007; 17(2):161-82. DOI: 10.1353/foc.2007.0019
Source: PubMed


Equality of educational opportunity has been part of the rhetoric of American political life for many years. Reality, however, does not match the rhetoric. Children living in poverty, disproportionately children of color, tend to be concentrated in schools with inadequate resources and poorly skilled teachers. Many of these children are likely to leave school before earning a high school diploma. Even if they graduate, many leave school without the skills needed to earn a decent living.
Equal access to a good education has become especially crucial over the past twenty-five years, as a rapidly changing economy has made skills and education ever more important determinants of labor market outcomes. Figure 1 shows trends in the average hourly wages of Americans with different educational attainments. In 1979 graduates of a four-year college earned 46 percent more than high school graduates earned on average. By 2005 that gap had widened to 74 percent. During that same period the average inflation-adjusted earnings of high school dropouts fell 16 percent.
Not surprisingly, the cognitive skills of students, even young students, predict accurately how likely they are to graduate from high school, enroll in college, and get a four-year degree. Inequality in mathematics and reading skills results in inequality in educational attainment and inequality in labor market earnings. The best evidence on the reading and math skills of American children comes from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), often called the nation's report card. Math skills are particularly important predictors of subsequent labor market outcomes. On the 2005 assessment of the math skills of eighth graders, only 13 percent of children living in poverty achieved a score of proficient compared with 40 percent of children who were not poor. Almost half—49 percent—of children living in poverty had scores below the threshold for basic competency, compared with just 21 percent of nonpoor children.
The differences in the mathematics and reading skills of eighth graders of different groups translate into striking differences in high school graduation rates. Although about three-quarters of white youth earn high school diplomas on schedule, the corresponding figure for black and Hispanic youth—who are especially likely to be living in poverty—is roughly half. These numbers provide striking evidence both that the United States is far from providing equality of educational opportunity and that improving the education of children living in poverty is critical to improving their life outcomes. In this article I propose and defend a set of actions that the federal government could take to improve the education of children living in poverty.
The federal government could improve the education of poor children and increase their chances to escape poverty by taking three steps. First, it could strengthen educational accountability by amending the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) to make test score goals attainable and to develop meaningful goals for increasing the share of students who graduate from high school. Second, it could address the problems of low-income students by encouraging states to strengthen high school graduation requirements so that they better reflect the skills needed for success after graduation and by also encouraging states to develop voluntary interdistrict school choice programs. Third, it
could build the instructional capacity of schools to educate low-income children.
To readers familiar with the structure of American education, it may seem odd to suggest that actions by the federal government would improve the education of disadvantaged children. After all, this country has historically left the governance of public education to the states, which in turn have delegated a great deal of responsibility and power to local school districts. Washington has traditionally been relatively powerless to affect what happens in American public school classrooms. In recent years, however, things have begun to change. In the next section I describe these changes and explain why federal actions can now influence the quality of education provided to children living in poverty. I then turn to the recommendations.
From one perspective, improving the education of children living in poverty is straightforward. Policymakers...

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    • "Every school day, more than 7,200 students exit American public high schools without a diploma; the majority of dropouts are impoverished minorities who are likely to attend large, urban schools (Swanson, 2010). Children living in poverty tend to be concentrated in lowperforming schools staffed by underprepared teachers (Murnane, 2007). It is estimated that more than a quarter of all students and over forty percent of Hispanic and African American students do not graduate from high school on time; the majority of students that fail to graduate with their peers are likely to dropout (Legters and Balfanz, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: ost Americans believe that the road to achieving the American Dream passes through the schoolhouse door. This chapter examines evidence of the returns to schooling in the American economy, changes in the average level of education by various groups of Americans during the twentieth century, and the role of education and family background in promoting economic mobility.
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