Relationship between the results of in vitro receptor binding assay to human estrogen receptor alpha and in vivo uterotrophic assay: comparative study with 65 selected chemicals.
ABSTRACT For screening chemicals possessing endocrine disrupting potencies, the uterotrophic assay has been placed in a higher level in the OECD testing framework than the ER binding assay to detect ER-mediated activities. However, there are no studies that can demonstrate a clear relationship between these assays. In order to clarify the relationship between the in vitro ER binding and in vivo uterotrophic assays and to determine meaningful binding potency from the ER binding assay, we compared the results from these assays for 65 chemicals spanning a variety of chemicals classes. Under the quantitative comparison between logRBAs (relative binding affinities) and logLEDs (lowest effective doses), the log RBA was well correlated with both logLEDs of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic compounds at r(2)=0.67 (n=28) and 0.79 (n=23), respectively. The RBA of 0.00233% was found to be the lowest ER binding potency to elicit estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activities in the uterotrophic assay, accordingly this value is considered as the detection limit of estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activities in the uterotrophic assay. The usage of this value as cutoff provided the best concordance rate (82%). These findings are useful in a tiered approach for identifying chemicals that have potential to induce ER-mediated effects in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: Dialkyl phthalates have been suggested to function as xenoestrogen. To explore the structural essentials, a series of ring and alkyl-chain isomers of dialkyl phthalates C6H4(COOCnHm)2 were examined for their ability to displace [3H]17beta-estradiol in the recombinant human estrogen receptor expressed on Sf9 vaculovirus. Compounds with an alkyl chain of more than C3 (n = 3) exhibited a distinct full receptor binding in a dose-dependent manner. When the ring isomers of C3-diallyl (-CH2-CH=CH2) derivatives, namely diallyl phthalate, diallyl isophthalate, and diallyl terephthalate, were examined, the ortho isomer of diallyl phthalate was most potent to bind to the estrogen receptor. The interaction with the estrogen receptor was optimized with dibutyl phthalates of C4. The conformational studies by 1H-NMR measurements and ab initio molecular orbital calculations have suggested that the structure mimics the interface of steroid A and B/C rings of 17beta-estradiol. Dicyclohexyl phthalate bound to the estrogen receptor with a biphasic binding curve, suggesting the compound discriminates two different receptor conformations.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/1999; 254(2):311-4. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A rabbit antiserum directed against purified human placental aromatase was used for immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme in rat ovaries. Immunostaining was conducted on tissue from animals at various ages and in different reproductive states: immature; immature, eCG-treated; immature pseudopregnant; adult cycling; and adult pregnant. Various labeling protocols were employed (e.g. horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody, peroxidase-antiperoxidase, and avidin-biotin-peroxidase on fresh frozen and Bouin's fixed paraffin-embedded sections), but the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method on paraffin sections proved to be superior to the others. In immature rats, most of the immunostaining, which was quite weak, was limited to the stroma. After stimulation with eCG, some of the granulosa cells of antral follicles exhibited immunostaining; in pseudopregnant rats, most staining occurred in the luteal cells. In mature animals, the corpora lutea of pregnant and cycling rats demonstrated the greatest degree of immunostaining. No significant immunoreactivity was detected in pre-antral follicles, but in early antral follicles and preovulatory follicles, both theca and granulosa cells exhibited immunostaining. Aromatase enzymatic activity was also determined on ovarian microsomal fractions of eCG-treated immature animals, pregnant animals at term, and cycling animals. Furthermore, enzyme activity and estradiol concentrations were examined after ovaries from proestrous rats were dissected into follicular, luteal, and residual components. Activity was found in all regions and correlated with immunostaining and estrogen production. These results argue against a model in which all the immunoreactive/enzymatically active protein is localized in granulosa cells of Graafian follicles and suggest that corpora lutea may be involved in estrogen synthesis during the rat estrous cycle as well as during pregnancy.Biology of Reproduction 04/1991; 44(3):550-60. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The estrogenic activities of eight phthalate esters (i.e., di-2-ethylhexyl, di-n-butyl (DBP), butylbenzyl (BBP), di-hexyl (DHP), diiso-heptyl, di-n-octyl, diiso-nonyl, diiso-decyl) were investigated in vitro using estrogen receptor (ER) competitive ligand-binding and mammalian- and yeast-based gene expression assays. In vivo, their effects on uterine wet weight and vaginal cell cornification using ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed. DBP, BBP, and DHP weakly competed with 17 beta-estradiol (E2) for binding to the ER in competitive ligand-binding assays. In gene expression assays using MCF-7 cells transiently transfected with the Gal4-human estrogen receptor construct, Gal4-HEGO, and the Gal4-regulated luciferase reporter gene, 17m5-G-Luc, 10 microM DBP, BBP, or DHP exhibited 36, 42, and 20% activity, respectively, when compared to the 100% response observed with 10 nM E2. Only BBP was found to induce luciferase activity (32%) in HeLa cells stably transfected with Gal4-HEGO and 17m5-G-Luc constructs and to impart minimal ER-mediated viability to the E2-dependent recombinant yeast strain, PL3, on selective medium. No significant responses were observed with the other phthalate esters in any of the in vitro assays. In vivo, none of the eight phthalate esters reproducibly induced significant increases in uterine wet weight in immature ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats treated with oral doses of 20, 200, or 2000 mg/kg of phthalate ester. In addition, treatment with phthalate esters at the same doses did not affect the degree of vaginal epithelial cell cornification in mature ovariectomized rats. These results indicate that only selected phthalate esters (i.e., DBP, BBP, and DHP) exhibit weak ER-mediated activity in some in vitro assays at high concentrations but none of the eight phthalate esters elicited in vivo estrogenic responses based upon results obtained from uterotrophic and vaginal cornification assays.Toxicological Sciences 01/1999; 46(2):282-93. · 4.33 Impact Factor