Chronologic changes of fasudil hydrochloride and hydroxyfasudil in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
ABSTRACT Fasudil hydrochloride (FH) has been developed as an antivasospasm agent. Its dynamics in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the vasodilating action of hydroxyfasudil (M3) have been obscure, although FH dilates spastic ateries from the inside of the vessel wall. The present study investigated concentrations of FH and M3 in serum and CSF. Dynamic studies of FH and M3 in the CSF of 10 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were conducted. FH (30 mg) was injected intravenously for 30 minutes, 3 times a day. Intra-arterial injection using a microcatheter from intracranial portions of the internal carotid artery was added to 3 patients with severe vasospasm. M3 remained in the serum longer than FH. Approximately 20% of the FH and M3 was transferred to CSF and remained there for a long time. The intra-arterial injections significantly increased M3 levels in CSF. These basic data may be helpful in developing future treatments.
- SourceAvailable from: Kozo Kaibuchi[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We recently demonstrated in our swine model of coronary artery spasm that enhanced myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylations (both MLC mono- and diphosphorylations) play a central role in the pathogenesis of the spasm. However, the molecular mechanism for and the phosphorylation sites for the enhanced MLC phosphorylations were unknown. In the present study, we addressed these points using hydroxyfasudil, a novel inhibitor of protein kinases, which we found preferentially inhibits Rho-kinase. The specificity of the inhibitory effects of hydroxyfasudil on Rho-kinase, MLCK, MRCK beta and PKC were examined by kinase assay in vitro. The left porcine coronary artery was chronically treated with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta, 2.5 micrograms). Two weeks after the operation, coronary artery vasomotion was examined both in vivo and in vitro. MLC phosphorylations were examined by Western blot analysis and the sites for the phosphorylations by anti-phosphorylated MLC antibodies that identified the monophosphorylation site as Ser19 and diphophorylation sites as Ser19/Thr18 of MLC. Inhibitory effects of hydroxyfasudil was at least 100 times more potent for Rho-kinase as compared with other protein kinases tested. Intracoronary serotonin (10 micrograms/kg) caused coronary hyperconstriction at the IL-1 beta-treated site in vivo, which was dose-dependently inhibited by hydroxyfasudil (p < 0.01). The coronary segment taken from the spastic site also showed hypercontractions to serotonin in vitro, which were again dose-dependently inhibited by hydroxyfasudil (p < 0.01). Western blot analysis showed that MLC monophosphorylation was significantly greater in the spastic segment than in the control segment, while MLC diphosphorylation was noted only at the spastic segment (p < 0.01). The sites for the mono- and diphosphorylated MLC were identified as the monophosphorylated site Ser19 and diphosphorylated sites Ser19/Thr18 of MLC, respectively. Both types of MLC phosphorylations at the spastic segment were markedly inhibited by hydroxyfasudil (p < 0.01). These results indicate that hydroxyfasudil-sensitive Rho-kinase-mediated pathway appears to mediate the enhanced MLC phosphorylations (on Ser19 and Ser19/Thr18 residues) and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery spasm.Cardiovascular Research 09/1999; 43(4):1029-39. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A dose-escalation study of the calcium ion entry blocking drug nicardipine was performed using large dose infusions in 67 patients with recent aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A safe, potentially therapeutic dose of the drug was determined. Patients admitted within 7 days of SAH from a documented cerebral aneurysm were entered into the study if no spasm was present on the initial angiogram. Nicardipine was administered as a continuous intravenous infusion throughout the 14-day period after SAH, regardless of the timing of surgery. To determine the safest possible dose, nicardipine was administered at seven dose levels from 0.01 to 0.15 mg/kg/hr. The total daily doses ranged from 27.7 mg to 375.0 mg. A follow-up angiogram was carried out on all 67 patients 7 to 10 days after SAH. Computerized tomography and neurological examinations were used to determine the presence of cerebral infarction. No major adverse effects, unexpected reactions, or permanent sequelae could be attributed to nicardipine. A decline in blood pressure was noted following administration of the drug. This occurred more frequently among patients given the largest dose but did not produce clinical problems or require discontinuation of the drug. Favorable outcomes were noted in 52 patients (78%). Vasospasm was found by arteriography in 31 patients (46%). A dose-related trend was noted: only eight (24%) of 33 patients treated at the highest dose level (approximately 10 mg/hr) developed arteriographic evidence of vasospasm. Symptomatic vasospasm was diagnosed in only two (6%) of 33 patients treated with this dose. Of the 34 patients receiving the lower dose levels, angiographic spasm was observed in 68% and symptomatic vasospasm in 27%. No deaths due to vasospasm occurred. Nicardipine appears to prevent both vasospasm and cerebral ischemia after SAH. A multicenter randomized double-blind trial to test this hypothesis is planned.Journal of Neurosurgery 04/1988; 68(3):393-400. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cerebral vasospasm continues to be the leading treatable cause of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this preliminary anecdotal series of 12 patients who were candidates for balloon angioplasty, vasospasm was treated instead with intra-arterial papaverine. Eight patients had marked angiographic reversal of the arterial narrowing following papaverine infusion, four of whom showed dramatic reversal of profound neurological deficits. Two patients deteriorated clinically 5 days after the initially successful papaverine infusions. In both, repeat angiography demonstrated severe recurrent vasospasm, which was partially reversed with a second intra-arterial papaverine treatment. Two patients developed focal neurological deficits during papaverine infusion, which resolved spontaneously over several hours after cessation of the intra-arterial infusion. Arterial narrowing in the posterior circulation and middle cerebral artery distribution appeared to be more responsive to papaverine infusion than was spasm in the anterior cerebral arteries. The infusion of 300 mg of papaverine over 1 hour seemed to be an adequate and safe dose to effect these angiographic and clinical improvements.Journal of Neurosurgery 01/1993; 77(6):848-52. · 3.15 Impact Factor