Early Predictors of Massive Transfusion in Combat Casualties

Department of Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons (Impact Factor: 5.12). 11/2007; 205(4):541-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2007.05.007
Source: PubMed


An early predictive model for massive transfusion (MT) is critical for management of combat casualties because of limited blood product availability, component preparation, and the time necessary to mobilize fresh whole blood donors. The purpose of this study was to determine which variables, available early after injury, are associated with MT. We hypothesized that International Normalized Ratio and penetrating mechanism would be predictive.
We performed a retrospective cohort analysis in two combat support hospitals in Iraq. Patients who required MT were compared with patients who did not. Eight potentially predictive variables were subjected to univariate analysis. Variables associated with need for MT were then subjected to stepwise logistic regression.
Two hundred forty-seven patients required MT and 311 did not. Mean Injury Severity Score was 22 in the MT group and 5 in the non-MT group (p < 0.001). Patients in the MT group received 17.9 U stored RBCs and 2.0 U fresh whole blood, versus 1.1 U RBCs and 0.2 U whole blood in the non-MT group (p < 0.001). Mortality was 39% in the MT group and 1% in the non-MT group (p < 0.001). Variables that independently predicted the need for MT were: hemoglobin <or= 11 g/dL, International Normalized Ratio > 1.5, and a penetrating mechanism. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.804 and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test was 0.98.
MT after combat injury is associated with high mortality. Simple variables available early after admission allow accurate prediction of MT.

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    • "transfuse. One could also argue the case for the use of scoring tables for trauma patients to predict the need for massive transfusion to avoid unnecessary activations (Yücel et al., 2006; Schreiber et al., 2007; Nunez et al., 2009). A greater percentage of patients using MTR were those who would otherwise require MT, but due to earlier and aggressive component transfusion did not require MT. "
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    ABSTRACT: A massive transfusion response (MTR) was introduced in 2007 to provide blood and blood products in a timelier manner. Aim of this study was to determine whether implementation of the MTR was associated with a change in clinical practice or mortality. All MTR activations from 2008 to 2011 were included in the study. Patients who had received a massive transfusion (MT ≥ 10 units RBC in 24 h) as part of the MTR (MT-MTR) were compared with a historical group of MT patients (MT-Pre-MTR) from 2004 to 2006. Blood product usage including fresh frozen plasma (FFP) : RBC and platelet : RBC ratios and mortality were compared between the two groups. Out of 169 MTR activations, 13 patients (8%) did not use any blood products, 73 (43%) used <10 units of RBC in a 24-h period and 83 received a MT. The median number of units of FFP and platelets transfused in the MT-MTR group were 10 [interquartile range (IQR) 7-17] vs 6 (5-10) [P < 0·001] and 3 (IQR 2-4) vs 2 (IQR 1-3) [P < 0·001] in the MT-Pre-MTR group of patients, respectively. The MT-MTR group received a higher 24-h FFP : RBC ratio (1 : 1·4 vs 1 : 2·4, P < 0·001). Overall mortality between the MT-MTR and MT-Pre-MTR groups (29% vs 23%, P = 0·43) and 90-day mortality was 25% vs 29% (P = 0·40), respectively. Although there has been a significant change in transfusion practice in MT patients using a MTR, no change in mortality could be documented using such a protocol.
    Transfusion Medicine 04/2013; 23(2):108-13. DOI:10.1111/tme.12022 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    • "MT was defined as the transfusion of 10 units or more of pRBC in the first 24 hours after admission. Clinical measurements used to create the model included: blood lactate (BL) ≥ 5 mmol/l, heart rate > 105 bpm, INR > 1.5, hemoglobin ≤ 11 g/dl, and systolic blood pressure < 110 mmHg [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The early aggressive management of the acute coagulopathy of trauma may improve survival in the trauma population. However, the timely identification of lethal exsanguination remains challenging. This study validated six scoring systems and algorithms to stratify patients for the risk of massive transfusion (MT) at a very early stage after trauma on one single dataset of severely injured patients derived from the TR-DGU (TraumaRegister DGU® of the German Trauma Society (DGU)) database. Methods Retrospective internal and external validation of six scoring systems and algorithms (four civilian and two military systems) to predict the risk of massive transfusion at a very early stage after trauma on one single dataset of severely injured patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU® database (2002-2010). Scoring systems and algorithms assessed were: TASH (Trauma-Associated Severe Hemorrhage) score, PWH (Prince of Wales Hospital/Rainer) score, Vandromme score, ABC (Assessment of Blood Consumption/Nunez) score, Schreiber score and Larsen score. Data from 56,573 patients were screened to extract one complete dataset matching all variables needed to calculate all systems assessed in this study. Scores were applied and area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated. From the AUC curves the cut-off with the best relation of sensitivity-to-specificity was used to recalculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV). Results A total of 5,147 patients with blunt trauma (95%) was extracted from the TR-DGU. The mean age of patients was 45.7 ± 19.3 years with a mean ISS of 24.3 ± 13.2. The overall MT rate was 5.6% (n = 289). 95% (n = 4,889) patients had sustained a blunt trauma. The TASH score had the highest overall accuracy as reflected by an AUC of 0.889 followed by the PWH-Score (0.860). At the defined cut-off values for each score the highest sensitivity was observed for the Schreiber score (85.8%) but also the lowest specificity (61.7%). The TASH score at a cut-off ≥ 8.5 showed a sensitivity of 84.4% and also a high specificity (78.4%). The PWH score had a lower sensitivity (80.6%) with comparable specificity. The Larson score showed the lowest sensitivity (70.9%) at a specificity of 80.4%. Conclusions Weighted and more sophisticated systems such as TASH and PWH scores including higher numbers of variables perform superior over simple non-weighted models. Prospective validations are needed to improve the development process and use of scoring systems in the future.
    Critical care (London, England) 07/2012; 16(4):R129. DOI:10.1186/cc11432 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    • "These principles of DCR should only be applied for patients with lifethreatening bleeding with hemorrhagic shock and should not be overused . Accurate predictive models that can be performed upon admission may be able to identify the patients who will benefit from hemostatic resuscitation, thus optimizing benefit and minimizing risk [90] [91] [92] [93]. This is an area of active research and is likely the most important current effort. "
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    ABSTRACT: Injury is rapidly becoming the leading cause of death worldwide, and uncontrolled hemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially preventable death. In addition to crystalloid and/or colloid based resuscitation, severely injured trauma patients are routinely transfused RBCs, plasma, platelets, and in some centers either cryoprecipitate or fibrinogen concentrates or whole blood. Optimal timing and quantity of these products in the treatment of hypothermic, coagulopathic and acidotic trauma patients is unclear. The immediate availability of these components is important, as most hemorrhagic deaths occur within the first 3-6h of patient arrival. While there are strongly held opinions and longstanding traditions in their use, there are little data within which to logically guide resuscitation therapy. Many current recommendations are based on euvolemic elective surgery patients and incorporate laboratory data parameters not widely available in the first few minutes after patient arrival. Finally, blood components themselves have evolved over the last 30 years, with great attention paid to product safety and inventory management, yet there are surprisingly limited clinical outcome data describing the long term effects of these changes, or how the components have improved clinical outcomes compared to whole blood therapy. When focused on survival of the rapidly bleeding trauma patient, it is unclear if current component therapy is equivalent to whole blood transfusion. In fact data from the current war in Iraq and Afghanistan suggest otherwise. All of these factors have contributed to the current situation, whereby blood component therapy is highly variable and not driven by long term patient outcomes. This review will address the issues raised above and describe recent trauma patient outcome data utilizing predetermined plasma:platelet:RBC transfusion ratios and an ongoing prospective observational trauma transfusion study.
    Biologicals 01/2010; 38(1):72-7. DOI:10.1016/j.biologicals.2009.10.007 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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